Volume 15, Issue 3, Summer 2020

Study the Effects of Some Metabolic Products to Decrease Side Effects of Lead, Iron, Copper and Zinc Bioconcentration on Nutrients Uptake in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and Nerium Oleander.

Rushdi S. Abdulqader

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 1-25
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.3.1

The research work was investigated to determine some primary metabolic products (proteins and carbohydrates) and secondary (phenols) to decrease the effects of some heavy metals (iron, lead, copper and zinc) bioconcentration factor (BCF) in uptake of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphors (TP) and total potassium (TK) in shoots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Red River Gum) and Nerium oleander (Oleander) cultivated in Kirkuk city roads. Plants and soil samples were collected from eight localities seasonally from March 2018 to February 2019. Lead, iron and copper accumulated in N. oleander shoots(average concentrations lead 0.35 ppm, iron 0.802 ppm and copper 0.12ppm) respectively more than E. camaldulensis shoots (average concentrations lead 0.3 ppm, iron 0.646 ppm and copper 0.091 ppm), while zinc accumulated rate in E. camaldulensis shoots 0.226ppm respectively equal  N. oleander shoots 0.221ppm. The uptake of TP negatively affected in E. camaldulensis and N. oleander samples but TN and TK did not because its recorded average values in plants samples (TN in E. camaldulensis 1.599 ppm and N. oleander 1.82 ppm; TK in E. camaldulensis 63.468 ppm and N. oleander 62.787 ppm) higher than recorded in soil samples (TN 0.577 ppm and TK 47.16 ppm). N. oleander sampleswere more efficiency by accumulate higher rate of heavy metals without effects in nutrients uptake compare to E. camaldulensis samples were removed bio concentrated  heavy metals and nutrients. The total proteins rate and phenols compounds recognized in  E. camaldulensis samples (Chlorogenic acid, Catechin, P-coumaric acid, Benzoic acid, Cinnamic acid, Genistic acid, Kaempferol and Quercetin)  and in N. oleander samples (Chlorogenic acid, Catechin, P-coumaric acid, Benzoic acid, Cinnamic acid, Genistic acid, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Rutin, Ferulic acid and Epigallocatchein) escape active defensive lines for plants samples to uptake nutrients without negative affected by concentrated heavy metals. 

Studying the Radon and Uranium Concentrations in Different Types of Tobacco Available in the Local Markets in the Kirkuk Governorate

Zainab Abdulkareem Ali; Ahmed A. Ibrahim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 26-44
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.3.2

The current research aims to measure radon gas concentrations in different types of tobacco. 20 types of cigarettes tobacco and two types of molasses were collected for eight different companies the most prevalent in smoking which are found in local markets using the techniques of solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 and electronic radon detector RAD7. The results showed that the radon gas concentration ranged between (44.54-100.22) Bq m-³ in cigarette samples and its concentration in molasses samples ranged between (40.02-134.98) Bq m-³ CR-39 detector. The results showed that radon gas concentration ranged between (41.9-84.1) Bq m-³ in cigarette samples (BD-BP). The ranged between (40.4-82.1) Bq m-³ in molasses samples (Gr2-Gk2) using the RAD7 reagent technique. The results of the study shows that the radon concentrations in tobacco samples are less than the internationally allowed limit (200-300 Bq m-3).

Cretaceous / Paleogene Boundary Analysis by Planktic Foraminiferal Biozonation in the Western Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt (Smaquli valley), Sulaimani Governorate, NE-Iraq

Qahtan A. M. Al Nuaimy; Khalid M. I. Sharbazheri; Kamal Haji Karim; Imad M. Ghafor

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 45-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.3.3

The current work focuses to study the foraminifera assemblages within the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/PG) boundary outcropped in the High Folded Zone in Smaquli valley (Gali section), Kurdistan Region, and Northeastern Iraq. The boundary is nearly located between Tanjero and Kolosh Formations and their exposure mainly consists of thick succession of deep marine turbidities (flysch) and hemipelagic sediments. The study aims to indicate biological fossils assemblages and physical expressions that inherited from globally important events of the end of cretaceous. The study has extraited expressions of the well exposed successions of fine grains from which 8 biozones are identified in the uppermost section of Shiranish formation, the Shiranish- Tanjero transition area and the Tanjero formation through biostratigraphy (biozonation) and lithostratigraphic analyses. These zones, from the bottom to top, are upper part of Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone (CF8), which belongs to Upper part of Shiranish Formation, (Early Maastrichtian) and lower part of Tanjero Formation. The second, third, fourth and fifth zones are Gansserina gansseri Interval Zone (CF7), Contusotruncana contusa Interval Zone (CF6) (Early Maastrichtian) and Pseudotextularia intermedia Interval Zone (CF5), Racemiguembelina fructicosa Interval Zone (CF4) respectively and all belong to lower part of Tanjero Formation (Early Maastrichtian). The sixth, seventh and eighth zones are Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Interval Zone (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra Interval Zone (CF2), Plummerita hantkeninoides Total Range Zone (CF1) respectively that belong to upper part of Tanjero Formation (Late Maastrichtian). Moreover, four biozones of Danian (Early Paleocene) are recorded in the lower part of Kolosh Formation which are Guembelitria cretacea Interval Zone (p0), (base of Danian), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina Total Range Zone (pα), (base of Danian), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina-Subbotina triloculinoides Interval Zone (P1a) (Early Danian), Subbotina triloculinoides–Praemurica inconstans Interval Zone (P1b), (Middle Danian). The lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study revealed that no physical events (conglomerate, erosional surface, paleosoil and hardground) and has a conformable and gradational existence, which is evidenced by continuous sedimentation of the same sediments and no chronostratigraphic gaps within K / PG boundary. Biologically, it shows the gradual extinction of the Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the sudden emergence of the Paleogene ones.

Studying the Structural and Electrical Properties of Composite [x(Ba〖Al〗_y 〖Fe〗_(12-y) O_19 )(1-x) 〖Ni〗_(0.5) 〖Zn〗_(0.5) 〖Fe〗_2 O_4] by Sol-gel Method

Nebras Noori Abdullah; Sabah Jalal Fathi; Rosure B. Abdulrahman

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 82-100
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.3.4

Nanocompound of ,  and nanocomposite  were prepared by Sol-gel method with a ratio x= 10, 25, 50, 75%. The samples compressed as a tablet under  hydraulic pressure, and these tablets were sintered at a temperature of 900 ℃ for a period of two hours (2h). The X-ray diffraction revealed the hexagonal structure of  with lattice parameters  and , while  reveals the cubic structure with a lattice parameter . The grain size of the samples has been calculated by SEM and it was between (25-35) nm. Electrical properties showed a decrease in the dielectric constant values, loss coefficient from (282.4348),(73.0997) to (4.2752),(0.4322) respectively, and increasing the electrical conductivity value from (2.2023*10-7 Ω-1 cm-1) to (9.1754*10-1 Ω-1 cm-1) with increasing the frequency.

Effect of the X-Ray on the Etch Rate Velocities (VB and VD) of the Nuclear Track Detector CR-39

Diman Nawzad Jabar; Ahmed A. Ibrahim; Khalil Ibrahim Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 101-115
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.3.5

The paper aims to study the effect X-Ray on different parameters of the nuclear track detector CR-39 irradiated with alpha particle. The parameters are tracks diameter, the Bulk etch rate, Track diameter growth rate. The detectors were exposed to X-Ray of voltage 5 kV and current 0.01 mA for different periods of time (0.5-2.5) h with step 0.5 h before and after irradiation with alpha particles of energy 2.5MeV emitted from 241Am source. It was found that the detector response in the case of irradiation with (X-ray+Alpha) is greater than that in the case (Alpha+X-ray) as compared to the slandered one irradiated with alpha particles only. It was also found that the track diameters and the bulk etch rate increase with the progress of the exposure time to X-ray for both cases, before and after irradiation with alpha particles.