Volume 13, Issue 2, Spring 2018, Page 1-398

GSM Interaction Based Real Time Climate Change Monitoring Technique

Sarmad Nozad Mahmood

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145711

The trend nowadays is towards communication and the way to communicate between the source and destination remotely. This work presents a new technique to communicate among different locations, either automatically or based on notification request. The work methodology was proposed to connect among FOUR different locations and store the data of each individual location periodically. For more applicability, the data chosen to be shared between the four locations are the substantial weather station items identified by (Temperature, Humidity, and Wind speed). Hereby, the tendency is to design robust real time weather station system in order to realize climate conditions at the proposed locations. Finally, the communication module that was chosen to run the system is Arduino microcontroller GSM shield.

Palynofacies Analysis and Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of the Tithonian-Beriassian Chia Gara Formation from Selected Wells in Ajil, Hamrin, and Tikrit Oilfields, Northern Iraq

Pavel T. Al-Jabary; Dler H. Baban; Sabah A. Ismael

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 18-39
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145712

The recovered sedimentary organic matter from the Tithonian-Berriasian Chia Gara Formation was studied from three selected wells of Ajil-12 (Aj-12), Hamrin-1 (Hr-1), and Tikrit-3 (Tk-3) in Northern Iraq. Amorphous organic matters appeared to be the dominant components of the organic matters within the formation with more than 93%, whereas phytoclasts and palynomorphs comprised only few percentages. As no intensive variations observed in the percentages of the determined organic matters along the studied Chia Gara Formation except a slight increase in phytoclasts and palynomorphs in its uppermost part, therefore the formation considered to be representing only one mainpalynofacies type that subdivided into two secondary palynofacies. Using Tyson's APP ternary, the formation appeared to be deposited in a distal suboxic-anoxic basin. As source rock, the formation in the studied locations contains moderate to very good quantity of organic matters which compose mainly of type II and Type III kerogen (separately or mixed). The whole formation has the ability to generate oil or gas except the upper part of the formation in the location of the well Aj-12 in which less than the lower limit of the required S2 values for considering as source rock is recorded.

Investigation of Carrier Persons of Salmonella Typhi in Cholelithias is Patients in Kirkuk Province

Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Khelowd Ayad Majeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145713

The aim of this study was to investigate person carries bacteria that cause typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi) in patients with cholelithiasis. For this purpose 50 sample of gallbladder tissue and 21sample only of bile salts(available only)collectedfrom the same patientswith cholelithiasis who subject to surgical removal in Azadi Teaching Hospital and Kirkuk General Hospital , in period from September 2016 to March 2017. The result showed that there was three out of 50 patients with gallstones were carried the bacteria which causes typhoid fever and this give ratio 6%. Females they was more than male in carried the pathogenic bacteria that give ratio 6.89% and 4.67% for females and males, respectively. Our study shows an association between presence stone in gallbladder and the presence of bacteria caused typhoid fever .

Analysis of CFRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams under Monotonic and Cyclic Loads

Dler Abdullah Omar Al-Mamany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145715

A layered technique formulation through the depth of reinforced concrete beam section is devoted to develop an incremental-iterative algorithm suitable for the analysis of beams strengthened by CFRP laminates under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Concrete nonlinear behavior in compression through loading, unloading, and reloading stages is considered with a tension-stiffening model to represent concrete in tension. A bilinear behavior with strain hardening model of steel reinforcement bars through loading, unloading, and reloading stages is used. A computer program Matlab code is developed and verified through comparisons with given experimental case studies available in literature, which show good agreement. Extending the present algorithm to include different sections, hybrid beams, and long term effects are recommended as future work.

Automatic Enrollment System for Student Dormitory

Kamal Hasan Jihad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 68-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145716

The Directorate of Dormitories at the University of Kirkuk offers full accommodated rooms to the male and female students. However, the directorate registers and assigns the accommodations manually. Therefore, a visiting has been made to the directorate to identify the problems of this system. It is found that the manual system suffers from several issues such as wasting time, losing data and extra charges in documenting students' information. Additionally, delays in replying to students’ enquiries, and ignoring their discipline in distributing them among the accommodations. This paper proposes using an e-governance system to tackle the identified problems. The proposed system permits the student to register online and provides him/her with an id card. The id card consists of a serial number, ISBN and student's room information in the accommodation. To design the system, a number of programming languages is used: (PHP, HTML, JAVA SCRIPT and CSS). Furthermore, SPSS software has implemented to evaluate the system. The evaluation has shown significant merits in terms of the reliability and speeding up of assigning rooms to the students among the accommodations. The distribution of the students is according to students discipline. Furthermore, the system determines the capacity of each accommodation precisely. Moreover, decreasing in time wasting and tiredness that may students face in the traditional manual system. Additionally, reducing the physical contact between the students and the employees. Consequently, the proposed system gathers students' information in an electronic archiving which may lead to easiness in importing their information in the future.

Geo-Environmental Evaluation of Shewasoor Soil, Kirkuk/ NE Iraq

Mustafa J. A. Ali; Omer S. I. Al-Tamimi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 82-100
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145718

The present research aimed to evaluate contamination levels of soil by heavy metals. Eight sites were selected for the collection of soil samples. The soil samples analyzed for eight heavy metals namely As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn by using ICP-MS technology. The spatial distribution patterns of environmental assessment factors and indices were drawn using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which is gives understanding for the geographical distribution of contamination levels in the area. The heavy metals contamination assessed by using several environmental factors and indices: Contamination Factor, Degree of Contamination, Pollution load Index, Enrichment Factor, Geo-accumulation Index, Nemerow Index. The environmental factors and indices showed that the soil was moderate to heavily contaminated by studied heavy metals. The EF values indicated that the metals Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, and Zn were enriched from natural sources, while the metals As, Cd, and Ni were enriched from anthropogenic sources.

Four–Term Conjugate Gradient (CG) Method Based on Pure Conjugacy Condition for Unconstrained Optimization

Hisham. M. Azzam; Hawraz N. Jabbar; Khalil K. Abo

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 101-113
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145720

A four-term CG-method based on pure conjugacy condition are proposed, Research activities on extending three-term CG-method to the four-term conjugate gradient method. The new method shown that the suggested CG-methods owns the sufficient descent property. The global convergence of the proposed scheme with the general Wolfe conditions under a suitable assumption was verified. Finally, the computational experiment show that the new method is efficient and robust.

Bulk Etch Rate and the Activation Energy of the CR-39 Detector using Thickness Difference Method

Abrar K. Mustafa Al-Ramadhni; Saeed H. Saeed Al-Niaemi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 114-126
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145721

The aim of this paper is to determine the bulk etch rate Vb of the nuclear track detector CR-39 using the method based on measuring the thickness of the layer removed from the surface of the detector (the thickness difference) by the chemical etching, and then studying how to change it with the temperature of the etching solution to extract an empirical relationship between them. The detector samples were etched in a 6 N of NaOH solution at temperatures 80, 70, 60 and 501 oC, and the thickness of the removed layer was determined by successive measuring the detector thickness for etching times of 1-9 h increasing with 1 h intervals. The results showed that the values of Vb range between 2.351-0.605 μm/h for etching temperature 50-80 oC respectively. An exponential relationship was obtained between the bulk etch rate and the etching temperature. It was noted that the results were consistent with that obtained by other studies using the track Length-diameter- (Le-D) measurement method. The slight difference in Vb magnitudes between the compared results is due to the slight difference in the concentration of the etching solution in certain

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Dust on Moncrystalline Photovoltaic Module Performance in Kirkuk, Iraq

Mohammed Zaki Abdulazeez

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 127-138
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145723

Photovoltaic module surface soiling due to dust deposition is a common problem, especially in the desert environment. In Iraq, Massive dust and sand-storms are environmental phenomena that frequently occurs during the year. Increasing desertification and decreasing vegetation coverage are one of the reasons for the recurrence of this phenomenon. Dust accumulation can reduce the performance of photovoltaic modules output power. This paper investigates the effect of dust accumulation on the performance of PV modules and the possibility of the energy losses experimentally. For this purpose, a microcontroller based dual axes sun tracker is designed and installed at the rooftop of the Engineering faculty Building located at Kirkuk University Kirkuk, Iraq. Two identical PV modules and real-time measurements with data monitoring system are used in this study. This study covers measurements done in August and December (2017). The results showed that the dust deposition on PV module could cause significant losses in PV output power generation on both fixed and sun-tracking modules. However, the losses was less in tracker system.

Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters of Patients with Hepatitis B in Kirkuk City

Entedhar R. Sarhat; Nawal A. Al- Madany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 139-148
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145724

Hepatitis B infection is a worldwide healthcare problem, especially in developing areas. The current study was to evaluate the alterations in different biochemical parameters including paraoxonase (PON), 5′-Nucleotidase (5NT), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, Prothrombin time (PT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total serum protein (TSP), albumin (Alb), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ɣ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in the serum samples of the viral hepatitis patients (n=100) compared with healthy controls(n=100). This study shown that there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the TSB, D. Bilirubin, In. Bilirubin, AST, ALT, PT, GGT, 5-NT, and ALP in viral hepatitis patients compared to their respective normal controls and there were significant decrease (p<0.05) in the serum (PON, SOD) activities, TSP and albumin concentration. It can be concluded that PON, 5-NT, SOD, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT may be specific method for making a diagnosis of viral hepatitis and also in distinguishing it with other kinds of hepatitis.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Bis-1,3 Oxazepine - 4,7- dione and 1, 3 – Diazepine -4,7- dione Derivatives

Saad Salim Jasim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 149-165
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145725

In this study, some of the new compounds have been synthesized including some of different Schiff bases (1-6) via the reaction of phenyl-1,4-diamine with substituted benzaldehyde in absolute ethanol and converted into derivatives of 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione (7-12) via ring closure reaction [2+5] of Schiff bases with maleic anhydride in dry benzene then the 1, 3- oxazepine -4, 7- compounds (7-12) were reacted with phenylhydrazine to produce 1,3-diazepine-4,7-dione (13-18). The prepared compounds were characterized by determination of melting point, FT-IR and UV-Visspectra, and some of the prepared compounds have been characterized by (1H-NMR& C.H.N.) techniques.

Application of Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy Technique at Room Temperature 300K.

Hussein Ali Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 166-176
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145726

Active areas of bismuth Hall Probe sensors in the range (0.1 – 1) µm have been fabricated on Si/SiO2 with GaAs substrates at thickness of bismuth from (40, 60 and 70) nm by Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) and lift-off process. Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) technique at room temperature (300) K used to study Hall voltage, characterization of the noise figures and minimum detectable fields. Results are presented for both 0.4µm sensor, which is found minimum detectable fields (Bmin) ~1.1 G/ Hz0.5 with dc currents about 5µA. But minimum detectable fields for HP size 0.6 µm at dc currents 20µA is Bmin~0.6 G/Hz0.5. The performance of our Hall probe devices at 300K could be improved still further are discussed.

Synthesis of Some Unsaturated Quinoline Derivatives

Natiq G. Ahmad; Moayed J. Mohammed; Neam H. Saleem

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145754

Dibenzyl acetone was prepared from the reaction of one mole acetone with two moles of benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a base. A number of quinoline were prepared by refluxing the dibenzyl acetone with aniline and its derivatives (o, m, and p-nitoaniline; m, and p-hydroxyaniline; p-chloroaniline and p-toluidine).
The structures of the prepared compounds were assigned according to elemental analyses results as well as UV-visible and IR spectra.

Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Mosul University by Using WQI Model

M. K. AL-Taay; M. A. Abdulhafedh; Abdalaziz Y. T. Alsaffawi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 185-198
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145758

Physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of drinking water and its quality index in Mosul University were determined. WQI was calculated through twelve parameters of tested results, this index usage in representation of the overall quality of water WQI for any intended use, drinking water samples were collected from eighteen sites in Mosul University, and analyzed to determined water quality parameters during summer 2008.
The study results indicated that al properties in safe international permissible limits for drinking water, except TPC which reached 800 cell/ml, the overall average of WQI reached 249; this high value belongs to high bacterial count which classified as very poor water.

Effect of Using Different Compensation of Growth Regulators on Hypocotyls Callus Intiation and Differentiate of Medicago Sativa

Raghad Nawaf Al-zaidy; Najwa Ibraheem Khalil Al-Barhawi; Abdullah Najim Abdullah Al-niemi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 199-213
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145760

The effect of some growth regulators on intiation ,grwth and differtiate of Alfalfa callus was studied .The search results showed a distinction MS media supplemented with growth regulators such as Kin ( 0.1 mgl) +2,4-D( 1.0 mg l) were distinguished in promoting callus formation from leaves and roots of Medicago sativa plants at ratio 90 and 100% successively. On the other hand the medium Kin (2.0mgL) +2,4-D (2.0mgL) formed callus from hypocotyl stem of seedlings in addition to formation of regeneration branches at number reached to 24 and of ratio 20% in one period.

Studying of Metal elements, Urea and Creatinine in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Children with Hydrocephalus Patients

Lelas Farhan Bdaiwi; Sayran Sattar Saleh; Luay Abed Al-Helaly

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 214-229
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145768

The research includes studying the effect of hydrocephalus on metal elements and kidney function in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which include of parameters : Iron (Fe), Cupper (Cu), Zinc(Zn), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Chloride (Cl), Urea and Creatinine. The study was done on (176) sample had hydrocephalus (110) were male and (66) were female and (67) were healthy children as control group( 39) were male and (33) were female the age of children with hydrocephalus and control group ranged from 1-14 month for both sex.
The results showed there was a significant increase in Fe, Cu, K, Na, Cl and P in the CSF for children with hydrocephalus patients in comparison with healthy group for both sex, and a significant decrease was shown in the levels of Zn, Mg and Ca.
Beside of that, the results showed the kidney functions were affected by significant high levels of urea and creatinine in CSF for both sexes of hydrocephalus patients in comparison with healthy group.

Study of Pollution in Heavy Metals and Some Physico-Chemical Variables of Wastes Water from Kirkuk City Hospitals

Theiab.G. Hussein; Kameran.Sh. Hussein; Abdullah.S. Kazael; Sarhan. A. salman

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 230-252
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145825

The selection was made on a number of hospitals to conduct a study on the quality of the water. The samples were taken before and after treatment from three hospitals in the city of Kirkuk, Kirkuk General Hospital, Azadi Educational Hospital and Children's Hospital. The samples were collected at regular intervals Six months from September (2016) to February (2017) . The first phase, which included the measurement of some physical variables and chemical variables, included physical measurements, temperature measurement, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (T.D.S), (T.S.S), all of which were above the permissible limit, except for the temperature. Chemical analyzes included (pH), (BOD) and (COD),(SO4-2), (PO4-3) and(NO3). The results of the study indicated that the applications were characterized by the rise of most chemical standards, most of which exceeded environmental determinants except (SO4-2) , and (pH), within the limits allowed for Iraqi specifications, and the second phase of the study, to demonstrate the extent of contamination of heavy elements, and included the measurement of the study of heavy elements: (Fe, Cd, Cr) The availability of cadmium and chromium, at concentrations higher than is permitted, while the concentration of iron elements was less than the limit allowed globally and locally, and the study used the research method And statistical analysis of data from wastewater models studied

Spectrophotometric Determination Atenolol in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Schiff’s Base Formation

Raghad A. dehema

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 253-265
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145827

The research Includes simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of atenolol in aqueous solution. The method is based on the Schiff's base formation which is achieved by coupling of atenolol with salicyldehyde to yield a yellow colour product exhibiting maximum absorbance at 378 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 12 - 84 μg/ml of atenolol, with a molar absorptivity 3728.2 L.mol-1.cm-1 and sandell index of 0.0714 μg.cm-2. The average recovery is 100.016%, relative standard deviation 0.181-1.907% and D.L of 0.4340 μg/ml. This method has been applied successfully to determination of isoniazid in pharmaceutical preparations.

Determination of Some Heavy Metals Concentrations in Industrial Waste Water of Soft Drink Plants and Reduction of Their Percentage by the Chelating Ligands.

Khairullah M. Abdullah; Saleh Abdullah Ahmed; Kmeran Shukur Hussein

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 266-281
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145828

The current study included the estimation of some heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron) for the industrial water wastes of the beverage production plants in Kirkuk city and the efficiency and selectivity of some thechelating ligands containing (S, N, O) for Reducely the ratio of heavy metals.and the questionnaire of its results.
The concentrations of heavy metals in the industrial waste water were (0.010-0.086), (0.0598-1.2514) (0.10-0.45), (0.010-0.228), (1.725-9.399) mg / L for cadmium, zinc, nickel, Copper and iron on the relay. Where the results showed that the concentration of metals were higher than the permissible limit except the element of zinc did not exceed the limits of Iraq. The measurement has been done using atomic absorption technique, melting point, IR spectrum and color

Inhibiting of C --steelL80 Corrosion by Using of Polyacrylamide and Thiophene -2- Carboxaldehyde

Farah Kh. H. Al-Juboory; Muthar J. K. Al-Obaidi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 282-294
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145829

In this research Five steady weights (0.5) g. of polyacrylamide were mixed with five different volumes of thiophene-2-carboxildehyde (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5) ml to obtain five concentrations of inhibitor in (50)ml of 15% HCl. (C-Steel L80) bars were immersed in the prepared solution and the lost weights were calculated in different temperatures (40,60, 80 and 90) ℃ at different times (3, 4, 5 and 6)hrs. the covered surface area (θ)and the efficiency were calculated from the lose weights; then the thermodynamic constants were calculated. It was observed that the less corrosion was obtained by increasing the inhibitor concentration.

Estimate of Some Genetic Parameters by Factorial Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Maiz Zea mays L

Yaser H. Homadia

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 295-306
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145830

Ten inbred line of corn (Zea mays L.) lever used and entered in crosses as a factorial mating system by lines (Agr-183, Zp505, Zp670 and Zp-197)as male parents (m) and lines (Ik-58 , Cml494 , Pio-46 ,H-s , Pio-47and Pio-25) as female parents . The lines and its single crosses were planted in Yiaichi region in Kirkuk governorate using (R.C.B.D) with three replicates in two seasons , spring and autumn 2015 , the results of statistical analysis showed significant differences in the means of studied traits for the parents and the crosses , the crosses were distinguished which entered as apparent Pio-25 in most studied traits , the cross (Pio-25×Zp-197) was gave high yield of grains (186.25 gm/plant) and surpassed in giving the most effect in general combining ability gave (32.25 gm) and also higher specific combining ability . The additive variance values were showed that controlled in trits number of ears, number of the rows in the car and number of kernels in the row. reflected on the increase of heritability values in broad and narrow sense , and genetic expected advanced as a percentage for these traits , the degree of dominance was less than one , while the values of dominance variance were controlled in genetic kerenles yield , the degree of dominance was more than one , which reflected on the genetic expected advance which was

Synthesis and Identification of Phenyl Azochalcone & bis- azo – Chalcone Derivatives Derived from P-amino Acetophenone

Zahraa Talib Ghlib; Ahmed Abdul-Hassan; Nihad Ismael Taha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 307-322
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145896

This work involves the synthesis of different substituted amino-chalcones via claisen- schmidt condensation reaction between p-amino acetophenone and different aromatic substituted benzaldehydes. The second step involves the conversion of amino-chalcones to diazonium salt which were reacted with different phenolic compounds to give azo-chalcone . Some azo-chalcones containing acetyl group wrer prepared by reactingdiazonium salt with para-hydroxyacetophenone, and this gave bis- azo-chalcoe on reaction with substituted aromatic benzaldehyde.
The chemical structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data (FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) and CHN analysis.

Monitoring Land Use Changes in Mosul City Gateways (Erbil and Rabiaa) and its Environmental Effects Using Remote Sensing Data

Sally H. E. Al-Hamadani; Hekmat S. AL-Daghastani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 323-338
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145897

Time sequential remote sensing data were used for monitoring the changes in the classification of land use and land cover to the gateways of Mosul city (Erbil and Rabiaa) for the period between (2001 to 2014).Current comparison aims to predict the evolution during this time periods and appreciation in each of these gateways within the environmental framework and its reflection on the city. Have been prepared (6) thematic maps for the tow gateway of Mosul city, following the USGeological Survey System(USGS)to classify the types of land use and land cover reaching to the third level, and has been account the area of each class and its percentage of the total area. The overall classification accuracy reached to these maps between (87% -100%).
The results of the environmental impact coefficient factors showed then increase in some land use classes and decrease in others, reflecting the deterioration of environmental conditions as a result of this development and urban growth, which warns that Erbil gateway may be on the verge of an environmental crisis, comparing with Rabiaa gateway.

Study the Effect or the Evaluate of the Addition of Ground Apple Powder as a Catalyst for the Bio-Enhancement of Natural Packed Carrot Juice.

Muhammed Yakob AL-Juboury; Mazin Muhammed AL-Zwbaidy; Ibrahim Saleh AL-Juboury

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 339-348
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145898

The current study was done to evaluate the effect of adding Jerusalem artichoke powder on growth of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus. acidophlic and Lactobacillus. plant arum) as probiotic in single-strength carrot juice during fermentation at 37°cfor 48 hour. The obtained results showed that there increasing in titrable acidity (as lactic acid) and there is also increasing in number of probiotic bacteria and decreasing in pH value and content of total soluble sugars (non-reducing and reducing sugars) of packaged carrot juice. Treated with probiotic bacteria or sample treated with probiotic bacteria and probiotic as Jerusalem artichoke powder effect fermentation at 37°C for 48 hours.
The number of probiotic and prebiotic is higher than their number in sample treated with only probiotic bacteria after incubation at 37°C for 48 hours.
From the results, the study ends with the results that the normal carrot juice is suitable media and Jerusalem artichoke is suitable as probiotic for L. acidophilus and L. plant arum growth

Histopathological Effect of Some Gram Negative Bacteria on Intestinal Mucosa of Suckling Mice.

Sundus M. Tayfur; Faeza Nasir Tuma

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 349-364
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145899

The Histopathological Effect of Escherichia coli, Citrobacterfreundii and Klebseillaoxytoca on Intestinal Mucosa of mice were fed with 2*106cell/ml. The microscopic examination of the histological sections showed pathological changes in sucked mice with all bacterial type but depending on the bacterial type: Escherichia coli the more virulent and cause lymph inflteration with degeneration of vili and many polymorphonuclear leukocytes were seen in lamina propria. On the other hand, tissue damage of the mucosa with necrotic and entire sheets of epithelial cells had sloughed off in some parts. Klebseillaoxytoca the least virulent than Citrobacterfreundii and cause damage in the intestine cells when compared with the control organs.

Synthesis and Identification of Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Ciprofloxacin

Shaima Ibraheem Chyad AL-khazraji

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 365-382
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145900

This research included preparation of Heterogeneous Cyclic compounds (quadrilateral and pentalateral) based on the acidic form of Ciprofloxacin (1) as a starting material. The ester compound (2) was prepared by reacting (1) with ethanol in the presence of sulphuric acid, followed by the reaction with hydrazine-hydrite to obtain the hydrazide compound (3), which was treated with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of absolute ethanol as a solvent to give the Schiff bases (4-6). The quadrilateral cyclo derivatives of B-Lactam (7, 9, 11) were prepared by reacting the Schiff bases with chloroacetyl chloride, using 1,4-dioxan as a solvent and trimethyl amine as a base. The pentalateral oxazolidine cyclo compounds (8, 10, 12) were prepared by reacting the Schiff bases with glycolic acid in the presence of 1,4-dioxan as a solvent. All prepared compounds were characterized using IR spectroscopy and melting points to prove the accuracy of the chemical structures

Geotechnical Assessment of compact gravel of the Tuz–Chai River / Salahaddin Governorate / Iraq

Raad Jalal Fathi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 383-398
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145901

This research included the geotechnical assessment of the compact gravel of the Tuz- Chai River / Salahaddin Governorate / Iraq. The results of the evaluation showed the natural accumulation of the Tuz- Chai River sediments, which are geologically belonging to Quaternary deposits and its suitability for use in the road works.
This evaluation showed the possibility of the use of the untreated pebbles of the Tuz- Chai River in the road works for sub base layer (type A, B and C). It can also can be used to produce asphalt-fixed gravel and sand for roadwork construction and for asphaltic base layer.