Volume 12, Issue 4, Autumn 2017, Page 1-382

Mining Design System for Exploitation of Fat’ha Formation(M. Miocene) in Makhul Anticline, IRAQ

Ghazi Atiya Zarraq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 353-382
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132378

This study deals with the emphasis on the economic value of Makhul Anticline rocks in Mid-Region of Iraq, and it includes a mining design system suitable and profitable to exploit these raw materials. Here, the recommendation is to use and apply the open pit bench mining to extract the rock beds because of thin overburden, and the waste materials which cannot be dumped inside the excavation site. The rock beds which are outcropped dipping on both sides of the anticline flanks have irregular topography. Development of the mine is usually quite simple. Enough overburden should be removed to expose sufficient rock beds for production and construction of new access roads. This kind of mine operation is worked on one side of flank sequentially downwards in series of steps or benches whose height is usually determined by the machines selected and which are recommended in this study with the height of bench in range of (4 – 5) m, the sidewall angle in range of almost (18 – 20)° from the vertical and the bench or haul road width in range of (8 – 10)m.
Access to the bottom of the mine should be cut- across the benches down to the next step. The equipments recommended in this kind of exploitation are Front - End Loader, diesel powered, rubber – tiered shovel for loading broken rocks in Lorries, and Jack Hammer Poclaine machine for Digging and breaking rocks. The mining operation become more profitable and economic when the whole rock beds of different types are extracted all together for multifarious uses, and the use of the facilities available around the area, such as the paved main roads, railway crossing the area, main power line, Tigris river, cheap labors and different types of machinery are ready for use.

Extracting the Density Gradient Profile of Polyethylene Glycol from Bulk to Surface


Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 337-352
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132379

In this work the Simha and Somcynsky (SS) lattice hole theory in conjunction with Cahn-Hilliard(CH) model have been used, (SS) theory describes the thermodynamic properties of both low and high molecular weight in terms of hole fraction, On the other hand (CH) describes the free energy profile of polymer surfaces or interfaces as an inhomogeneous mixture. CH consider the energy density to be two fold. The first is the constant free energy density for a homogeneous region of the system and the second is the density gradient contribution to the free energy. Have employed the mentioned theories in derive the new equations to extract in surface tension and surface depth profile in terms of chemical potential by means of SS theory. Starting form the atmospheric pressure to 150Mpa and for temperature range from 313 to 473 K, Then ıt is found the density profile of polyethylene glycol decrease as it is approached to the surfase. PVT characteristic parameters of the SS theory are calculated using the data of polyethylene glycol. the average and maximum value (at polyethylene glycol in different molecular weight

Radon Content of Recent Sediments in Relation to Tectonic Features at Mosul City and Neighboring Area

Omer E. Al-Adwane; Salim M. Aldabbagh

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 247-265
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132380

Thirty Three recent sediment ( 5 surface wadi filling and 13 flood plain + 15 soil at 0.7m depth) samples were selected from different localities namely ( from south to north ) : Al-Sallamya + Lazzaga villages, Hawi Al-Kanessa, Shuraikhan, Al-Mallaeen Quarter, Tel-Kief, Wadi Al-Malah, and Fifeal area. The collected samples were subjected to traditional geochemical test and analysis in aaddition to Radon gas measurement using solid plastic nuclear detector CR-39 ( Columbia Resin ) in the field( cup irradiation technique ) and in the laboratory ( test tube irradiation technique ). Sodium hydroxide etched detector were investigated under optical microscope to count the track density and later Radon gas exhalation measurements (Bq.m-3) were calculated. Variation in Radon gas measurements were displayed and followed in contour maps and discussed in relation to the obtained geochemical data and to know faults and other structural features in the studied area

Determination the Level of Serum Iron in the Ewes Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

Arjan Aydin Zeynel

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 266-275
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132381

[The current study was performed from the period of August 2016 to January 2017 in Kirkuk city to clear up the taking place of iron deficiency with different clinical appearance of ovine fascioliasis. Eighty ewes were distributed to two groups; patient group including 40 ewes that were had clinical signs of fasioliasis and 40 healthy ewes were typified as control group, based on clinical symptoms the patient ewes were portioned out to subacute and chronic groups that comprised of 20 and 20 continuously. Fecal samples of ewes were tested in order to differentiation the Fasciola hepatica infected away from non-infected, venous blood samples were collected from the ewes for particularization and comparison of iron levels in serum samples of the groups. Results of present study showed occurrence of significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in iron level in the blood serum of infected ewes compared with perfect control group, whereas the existence of significant divergence was not observed (P ≥ 0.05) in iron level in subacute and chronic infected ewes group. It was drawn a conclusion that ovine fascioliasis conduces to iron deficiency irrespective of its clinical forms. It is necessary to provide the infected sheep with iron preparations to facilitate their cure from fasscioliasis].

A Prospective Study for the Outcomes of Thalassemia in Kirkuk 2016

Asal Aziz Tawfeeq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 140-156
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132382

Background: Thalassemia is one of the most globally common chronic hematological disorder. This inherited disorder is characterized by an abnormal production of hemoglobin protein resulting in a life-threatening disease of two main types α and β.In Kirkuk city it was found that, β-thalassemia was the most common disorder and various factors were found to be contributing to the counts of β-thalassemia including ethnic origins and migration that added more burden on the genetic pool of the region and on the inheritance of traits in that area.
Objective: Evaluating the prevalence of thalassemia in Kirkuk city according to a number of parameters that included age, gender and ethnic background of patients along with the assessment of the effect of consanguinity marriage on the incidence of the disease.
Patients &Methods:
Total of (156) clinically diagnosed β-thalassemia patients attending “Thalassemia Unit “ in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City were questionaired and data were divided into four cohorts for evaluation; followed by statistical analysis.
No significant difference was detected in β-thalassemia distribution among males and females in Kirkuk city 2016; β-thalassemia was more prevalent in children born following the years of insecurity in the country generally and Kirkuk city especially. In addition, about (77.56%) of β-thalassemia patients were the outcomes of consanguinity marriage from the first degree cousin whom affected with β-thalassemia minor without their knowledge. Additionally, the distribution of β –thalassemia patients between different ethnic groups living in Kirkuk and the surrounding areas indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the incidence of β –thalassemia in Turkman patients who had recorded the lowest incidence rate of (17.31%) compared to the Kurd patients where they recorded the incidence rate of (37.18%) and Arabs where they recorded the highest incidence rate of (45.52%) among total of (156) β –thalassemia patients where most of them came from rural areas or were internally displaced people.
β- thalassemia disorder is one of the prevalent inherited diseases in Kirkuk city with increasing frequency among children in the ages of (1-3) years old. Besides, the distribution of β- thalassemia disorder did not vary among males and females in Kirkuk city in the year 2016 and it was concluded that, the frequency of β- thalassemia showed an increase in the years following wars and invasions in Kirkuk city. Moreover, consanguinity marriage increases the frequency of β- thalassemia incidence among both male and female patients. Additionally, individuals with minor β- thalassemia increase the ratio of β- thalassemia incidence among their children and the distribution of β- thalassemia differ according to different ethnic groups.


Hasan .A. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 232-246
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132383

A dithiocarbamate ligand; sodiumdiethanolaminedithiocarbamte Na(deadtc) is synthesized from the reaction of diethanolamine with cabondisulfide and sodium

hydroxide.( phen)= 1,10-phenathroline . Addition of metal salts, gave complexes of the types: [M(deadtc)2 phen], where M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II). [M(deadtc)3] where M= Fe(III). The ligand (deadtc) behaves as a bidentate and coordinated to the metal ion centers either through the sulfur atom of its dithiocarbamate and or through the nitrogen atoms of the phenathroline. All the synthesized ligands and complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity, infrared, electronic spectra and susceptibility measurements. From the obtained data octahedral geometry for the complexes have been suggested.

Synthesis, Characterization of some Transition metal complexes of Piperidine dithiocarbamate and ethylenediamine

Hasan .A. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 25-42
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132384

Piperidine is heterocyclic amine used as starting material for preparation piperidine dithiocarbamate (pipdtc).add the some transition metal salt of this ligand with ethylinediamine gave complexes of the types:[M(pipdtc)2en], [M(pipdtc)3] when the ratio, (M: pipdtc:en,1:2:1), ( M: pipdtc.1:3) respectively . The ligand dithiocarbamate (pipdtc) behaves as a bidentate and coordinated to the metal ion centers either through sulfur atoms and through nitrogen atoms of the ethylenediamine All the synthesized ligand and complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity, infrared, electronic spectra and susceptibility measurements and theoretical Calculations . From the obtained data octahedral geometry for the complexes have been suggested.

Design And Manufacturing of a Pin-on-Disk wear Testing Apparatus

Hussein Mohammed Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 77-108
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132385

The present work is about a design and manufacturing process of a pin-on-disk apparatus which is used as a test method for determining the wear of any two sliding materials. The aim of this paper is to give an information about the design steps and manufacturing procedure for the pin-on-disk apparatus and to discuss the problems follows the design and manufacturing process. It also gives information about wear testing process. Different types of experiments were done with several different test specimens to be able to make a comparison between wear test results of this work and that of another experiment found in literatures. It was concluded, that a pin-on-disk wear testing apparatus which is working properly is successfully designed and manufactured. The results of the wear testing obtained by the apparatus which have been designed and manufactured in this work shows that the wear of the test specimen increases as the speed (rpm) of the motor increases. And also, as the sliding distance increases,the wear decreases at constant load and speed.

Interaction Between Coronal Mass Ejection "CMEs" and Jupiter Magnetosphere by Numerical Simulation Using MHD Models

Wafaa H. Zaki

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 179-208
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132386

The present study deals with the interaction between the magnetic field of Jupiter and ones of the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for three years (2011-2013) which includes the peak of Solar cycle 24. These interactions were studied through numerical simulation using Magneto hydrodynamic models (MHD) and solved numerically by Leapfrog method with the aid of MATLAB program. The data related to CMEs were derived from LASCO/SOHO, and were verified whether there are events or not by checking them from ERNE detectors (LASCO and ERNE are scientific systems on board SOHO). While the data which concern with Jupiter were taken from VOYAGER 1. The simulation were achieved in two stages; firstly, the beginning simulation of the lunched CMEs from the surface of the Sun until they reach behind the boundary of the magnetosphere of Jupiter through interplanetary using the ideal MHD model (conservative model), and secondly is being the simulation of the interaction between the magnetic field of the CMEs and ones of Jupiter. It is verified using Semi-relativistic MHD model. Accordingly, it was found that Leapfrog numerical analysis is the optimal and best method. In addition, the outgoing CMEs to Jupiter embraces impulsive type and associated with Flares. Furthermore, it has been noted from the numerical simulation that intensity of the final magnetic field after the interaction of CMEs magnetic field with Jupiter magnetic field is going to increase giving rise to positive correlation with the speed of the adopted CMEs. On the other hand, the fast MHD shock wave with convex surface was created, because the speed of the adopted CMEs were greater than Alfven speed.

Evaluation of Water Quality for Lesser-Zab River for Various Applications

Shuokr Qarani Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 209-231
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132387

The purpose of this research was to study suitability of water in Lesser-Zab River for drinking, irrigation, fish production, swimming, and construction. Raw water samples from Lesser-Zab River were collected for eight months, from February 2013 to September 2013. The samples were analyzed for 15 water quality experiments. Sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, and alkalinity percentage were also determined. The maximum values for temperature, pH, total acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total salts, dissolved oxygen, five day biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfate were 21.2 oC, 8.18, 20 mg/L, 188 mg/L, 180 mg/L, 11 mg/L, 127 FTU, 420 µmhos/cm, 268.8 mg/L, 9.2 mg/L, 6 mg/L, 1200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, 900 mg/L, and 0.0 mg/L, respectively. Lesser-Zab water can be categorized as a moderately polluted water with moderately hard to hard water. The water quality of the river remains within the standards for drinking water, but still requires appropriate treatment processes prior to consumption. Water in Lesser Zab River is considered excellent to good and entirely safe for irrigation. This water is also fit for fish and other aquatic animals and safe for construction, but not appropriate for swimming.

An Improved RSA based on Double Even Magic Square of order 32

Shahla Uthman Umar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 319-336
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132388

Because of the computers systems discovery and the use of computer networks between countries, security is very important to transfer confidential information over the networks; traditional cryptographic systems such as Rivest-Shamir-Adlemen (RSA) are depend on guesswork as well as mathematics. Information theory illustrates that conventional cryptographic systems cannot be regarded fully secure unless the private key ; which it is used once only ; is at least as long as the plain text. And another limitation is using ASCII value to represent the plaintext, So the repetition of characters in the plain text will appear in the cipher text therefore we have given approach to generate magic square of order 32 which cannot be easily traced and use this square in the cryptography which it is used to improve efficiency through providing an additional level of security to encryption. Through of the characteristics of magic squares, and it's some complex conditions (non-repetition property), these squares generates a huge numbers of non-duplicate random numbers which can be used to represent the numerals rather than ASCII values as well as the magic square is also used to generate the keys for public key encryption algorithms.


Dhiaadin Bahaadin Noori Zangana

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 109-139
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132389

In this study, the behaviour of reinforced sand under a square footing has been investigated. A series of bearing capacity tests were performed on a small-scale laboratory model, filled with a poorly-graded homogenous bed of sand, which was placed in a medium dense state using sand raining technique. The sand was reinforced with 40 mm wide household Aluminium foil strips. The aim was to study the load-settlement behaviour, bearing capacity ratio and settlement reduction factor, considering the effect of reinforcing strip length, with various linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcement below the footing.
Generally the relation of load-settlement showed similar trend in all the tests. The failure was defined as the settlement equal to 10% of the footing width. The recommended optimum reinforcing strip length, linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcing strips, that give the maximum bearing capacity improvement and minimum settlement reduction factor were presented and discussed. Both bearing capacity and settlement reduction factor versus length of the reinforcing strips relation at failure have showed an improvement of the bearing capacity ratio by a factor of 3.82 and a reduction of the settlement reduction factor by a factor of 0.813. The optimum length of the reinforcement was found to be 7.5 times the footing width.

3a quasi M-θ-ii-continuous functions in bi-Supra topological spaces

Taha H. Jasim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132390

In this paper , we introduces a new definition in bi-supra topological space , called M-θ- ii- open and via this definition , we introduce a new types of functions called quasi M-θ-ii-continuous functions which unifies some weak forms of quasi θ-ii-continuous functions in bi-supra topological spaces and investigate their properties.

Data Security Protection in Cloud Computing by using Encryption

Asst. Lec. Ghassan Sabeeh Mahmood

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 276-286
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132392

Cloud computing is a paradigm for offer information technology services on the Internet, such as hardware, software, networking and also the storage can be accessed anywhere at any time on a pay-per-use basis. However, storing private data onto servers of the cloud is a challenging matter. Therefore, cryptography technique and authentication are used in this model to ensure confidentiality and proper access control of sensitive data. Therefore, in this paper I proposed a model to protect data in cloud computing. In this model the algorithm of the Rivest-Shamir- Adleman (RSA) is applied to the private data. Furthermore, the protocol of Challenge-Handshake -Authentication-Protocol (CHAP) is used to improve the security of the authentication as well. The results show this model is secure and practical.

Evaluation of the Best Slope Angle for a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

Firas Aziz Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 157-178
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132393

The performance of flat plate solar collector is affected by the value of its slope angle with respect to horizontal plane, where the variation of slope angle changes the amount of incident solar radiation. So, using the solar tracking system for solar collector will get the maximum solar radiation, the application of the solar tracking system cost has high operation and maintenance. It is usually suitable to set the solar collector at a best fixed slope angle throughout the year with less reduction in solar radiation received on the collector surface. In this work, a best slope angles were calculated for solar collectors based on the monthly mean daily solar radiations on a horizontal surface over some Iraqi cities (Mosul, Rutba, and Basra). The total of rays flux incident upon a solar collector is mainly affected by the installation angle. The solar collector can be oriented at three different angle settings. The first angle setting is to adjust the collector monthly off to give highest incident solar radiation, while the second angle setting suggests the seasonally changes (Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn) .The final adjustment for solar collector can be achieved using the mean value for the four seasons to get yearly averaged throughout the year

Petrography and Synsedimentary Processes of Carbonate beds of Fat’ha Formation. In selected sections at Al-Qayyara area, south of Mosul, Northern Iraq.

Muthanna Y.M

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 43-64
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132394

Fatha was studied in two sections at Alqayyara area southern of Mosul. Petrographically, Sands Fatha indicated composed of quartz monocrystalline and polycrystalline type, while the feldspar forming mostly of plagioclace feldspar and K-feldspar. The rock fragments mostly come of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary origins. Fat’ha Formation is affected by diagenetic process such as Cementation, Compaction, Neomorphism and Dissolution. limestone beds contain sedimentary structures the effect of environmental factors on shallow environments. The current study showing that the Fatha Formation contains fossils, trace fossils, high percent benthonic foraminifera (Rotallida and Miliolida) and low other fossil such as mollusca.

Head lice infestation among local and displaced secondary school girls and its effect on some haematological parameters in Kirkuk city.

Mohammad Abdul-Aziz Kadir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132395

Background: Head lice infestation is one of the most important health problems throughout of the world. The species which cause pediculosis in humanus beings is Pediculus humanus capities.
Objectives: The aim of the current study is to estimate the distribution of head lice among local and displaced secondary school girls to assess haemoglobin and packed cell volume in Kirkuk city.

Methods: The hair of all students was examined by researchers and blood samples were drawn from each student for determination of haemoglobin concentration and PCV percentage.
A questionnaire form was filled for each student including personal and family information. The student t-test was used to show significant difference of PCV and Hb between lice infested and non infested students.
Results: The overall rate of head lice infestation among secondary students girls was 34.7% (displaced 42.7% and local 26.7%). The highest rate of infestation was among 16-18 years and lowest was among 13-15 years. The highest rate in displaced students was among middle educated status, while in local students among low educated status. The PCV and Hb values in infested girls were lower than non- infested ones

Design of the illumination system in the field emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein; Faez Ahmed Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 287-296
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132396

The main goal of This Work is to survey the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain on the optimal design for illumination system. The SEM optical column contains of illumination system that form a focused beam by electrons are released and animated to incident on the specimen surface, this backscattered electrons from the specimen surfaces, finally forming an image. mainly the optical column include a field emission source as the beam source, illumination system, electron control unit, and unit the vacuum. use of a finite element analyses in the design process of the SEM ingredient to be optimally determined. By the analysis we can predict the beam emission characteristics and relevant trajectories were predicted from the analysis of the present work from which a systematic design of the electron optical system is enabled.

Cervico-Vaginal Candidiasis in Married Women

Hadeel I. Ibrahim; Manhil M. Yehia

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 297-318
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132397

The present study is aimed to identify the isolated yeasts from vagina and cervix of the pregnant and non-pregnant women. The study included 100 patients (50 pregnant; 50 non-pregnant women), in addition to 50 apparently healthy women. The clinical specimen were collected during the period from December 2013 to May 2014. From each patient high vaginal and endo cervical swabs were collected, in addition to the control group. Three slides were prepared from each swab for direct examination (Slide immersed in normal saline, slide immersed in 20% KOH wet mount and Gram stained slide).The clinical specimens cultured on Sabouraudʼs agar and Brain heart infusion blood agar. Each culture was identified to yeast species by germ tube test, Chrom agar and API 20 C system. The tested women considered infected with Candida spp when the culture from the clinical specimen for each contain > 10 colonies together with positive direct examination and symptoms and signs. The main isolates were C.albicans from pregnant (84.8% from vagina ; 89.7% from cervix) and non-pregnant (66.7% from vagina ; 64.3% from cervix) women. In addition to the control (50% from vagina ; 0% from cervix) group.