Volume 10, Issue 3, Summer 2015, Page 1-367

A Comparative Study between Analytical and Numerical SolutionofUnsteady State One-Dimensional Heat Transfer for Different Materials

Iesam J. Hasan; Ehsan F. Abbas; Amir K. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 273-291
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104981

The present investigation includes a comparative study of numerical solution methods with analytical solution for one dimensional transient conduction problems. For this purpose, six different materials were selected and distributed in two groups (metallic and nonmetallic) materials. Group of metallic materials were such as pure copper, pure Aluminum and Iron, whereas a group of nonmetallic materials such as sandstone, concrete and building brick. Four numerical solution methods were selected as (finite difference, thermal capacitance, and finiteelement) and also Ansys program to compare them with analytical solution. The simulation results showed that the error ratio between numerical solutions and analytical solution would be higher at the transient period in all materials, while this ratio decreased when the case of the materials wouldreaches steady state, and the results indicated that the materials having high thermal conductivity would give less error ratio in the beginning of simulation than other materials which had low thermal conductivity.

Proposed Classification System by Using Artificial Neural Network

Esraa Z. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 59-78
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104982

The research presented in this paper was aimed to develop a recognition system for microscopic images of human tissues samples. The system should classify different types of tissues (i.e., Breast, Liver and blood cells). In this paper, co-occurrence matrix, run length matrix features combined with developed method to measure the roughness were used to extract a set of textural features in order to perform texture analysis for tissues samples. A feed forward neural network was used to classify different types of tissues according to the extracted feature vectors. For ANN training purpose the back-propagation training algorithm was used. Evaluation tests were carried on 550 tissues images. The test results indicated that the best attained success rate was around 93%. The proposed system was implemented using “visual basic.net” and all tests be done on windows operating system environment.

Effect of Glibenclamide and Tomato lycopene extract on some biochemical parameters in serum of alloxan Induced diabetic rabbits

Ayhan R. Mahmood; Mohammed Sh. Abdulla; EntedharR. Sarhat

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 140-154
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104983

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, and occurs in almost all populations of the world a variable prevalence. In the present study we evaluated the effect of glibenclamide, and tomato lycopene extract on blood glucose, enzymatic antioxidants, glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), and malondialdehyde(MDA) in 50 alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. The results showed a significant(P < 0.001) increase in the level of glucose, HbA1c, MDAin alloxan diabetic rabbits in comparison to the control rabbits. A Significant decrease in the level of serum glucose, HbA1c,and MDAin alloxan diabetic rabbits when received glibenclamide daily as single dose 0.5 mg/kg body weight for 20 weeks, and2and 4 mg/kg of tomato lycopene extract for 20 weeks respectively. The result of this study showed a significant (P <0.05)decrease in the mean of serum catalase in alloxan diabetic rabbits in comparison with control group after treatment with 0.5 mg/kg glibenclamide, and 2, 4 mg/kg of lycopene extract a significant (P <0.05)increase in serum catalase was observed in alloxandiabeticrabbit.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of glibenclamide and tomato products on antioxidative status in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Investigation of Some New Metal Complexes of Cu2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions with the Ligand of 2-[(8-hydroxy-1-quinolin-5-yl)-methyl]-1H-1,2-benzothiazole-3-(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide

Jawdat H. Abdul Wahid; Afraa S. Shehab

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 355-367
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104985

The synthesis, characterization and biological activity of new complexes of Cu2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions with derivatives ligand from N-hydroxy methyl saccharin and 8-hydroxy quinoline were described and studied.
The new prepared complexes (ligands) were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, H1-NMR and C13-NMR spectroscopy studies. Coordination of the ligand atom to the metal ions was deduced by IR. All the complexes have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal.

An analytical study on the specification of city of Kirkuk's water and compare it with the water areas of Alton-kopry and Daquq for human use

Hussein H. Hamed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 42-58
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104988

Chemical and physical properties of underground water samples were investigated from Kirkuk city and its regional neighborhood such as Alto Kopry and Daquq.Thesesamples were collected from nineteen different locations in these zones including drinking water network of Kirkuk city.
These samples that were tested quality of North Gas Company (NGC).The tests carried out were the determination of PH value, dissolved solids, hardness, ion concentrations and electrical conductivity.
The results showed that the collected samples were free from bacterial contamination, as well as some properties exceeded the permissible limits and others were within limits.As a general conclusion, Kirkuk network water was better than its surrounding regions. Some wells in Alton Kopry and Daquq were acceptable for human use whereas others required chemical treatment.

Evaluation of the efficacy of UV light, Laser lights and Nigella sativa alcoholic extracton the Viability of Leishmaniatropicapromastigotesin vitro

Haneen E. Hussein; Abdul Rahman A. Al-Tae; Mohammed A. Kadir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 171-181
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104991

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common disease in Iraq, especially in the central part of the country. Several treatments have been suggested for this disease but none is completely effective and without side effects. Several researches are focused on the development of alternative treatments. The present work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ultra violet light, laser lights, and Nigella sativa alcoholic extract on the viability of Leishmaniatropicapromastigote in vitro.
The study included exposure Leishmaniatropicapromastigote stage in vitro cultured to 2, 4, 6, 8 minutes of ultra violet light and laser lights, also exposure to 40, 50, 60, 70 mg/ml concentrations of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract, then evaluated their effectson replication number and parasiticidal rate of parasite.
It was found that there was significant decrease at level(p≤0.05) in replication number of Leishmaniatropicapromastigotes groups which exposed to 40, 50, 60, 70 mg/ml of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa, while there was significant decrease at level(p≤0.05) in replication number of groups exposed to 6, 8 minute of laser helium neon light and in groups exposed to 4, 6, 8 minute of laser diode light, and there was no significant decrease at level(p≥0.05) in replication number of groups exposed to 2, 4, 6, 8 minute of ultra violet light in comparison with control groups on the day 5 of incubation. There was increased in parasiticidal rate of Leishmaniatropicapromastigote stage with increasing the time and the concentration of exposure to radiation lights and the alcoholic extract, it was 0%, 25%, 47%, 57% on 2min,40mg/ml respectively and reached to 4%, 68%, 86%, 90% on 8min,70mg/ml respectively under exposure to ultra violet light, laser helium neon light, laser diode light and Nigella sativa of alcoholic extract on the day 5 of incubation.
It can be concluded that the efficacy of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract was significantly higher than that of ultra violet light, laser helium neon light, laser diode light in decreasing the replication number, and increasing the parasiticidal rate of Leishmaniatropicapromastigote stage.

New Scaled Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Training Artificial Neural Networks Based on Pure Conjugacy Condition

Khalil K. Abbo; Hind H. Mohamed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 230-241
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104992

Conjugate gradient methods constitute excellent neural network training methods characterized by their simplicity efficiency and their very low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new scaled conjugate gradient neural network training algorithm which guarantees descent property with standard Wolfe condition. Encouraging numerical experiments verify that the proposed algorithm provides fast and stable convergence.

Finite Strain Estimation in Baba Dome Using Fry Method (NE Iraq)

Duraid B. Deikran; Waad M. AL_Hamdani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 129-204
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104993

Literatures survey indicates that no such study carried out concerning strain measurement and analysis in the concerned area. The well-known field and laboratory work carried out. An accurate ellipse was determined for each ab, bc and ac planes for each formation exposed in Baba dome using Matlab program with a relatively new toolbox (Polylx). Then for each sample the mentioned ellipses was mathematically compiled to generate strain ellipsoid with long, intermediate and short axes with their orientations using Mathcad software. Then the long and short axes of strain ellipsoids projected on ab plane and delineated. Because Baba dome took the present form during last phase of Alpine Orogeny (Miocene -Pliocene) with contemporaneous deposition of Mio- Pliocene formations, the present study deduced that the strain is directly proportional to the stress i.e. elastic deformation. Therefore, the orientation of short axes of strain ellipsoids should coincide with orientation of maximum stress axes giving rise the orientation of maximum stress direction in sampled station.

Prevalence of Entameba histolyticaandEntameba dispar among the immune suppressed patients (cancer patients ) after receiving chemotherapy treatment in Azadi Teaching Hospital

Abdurrahman A.Altae; Abdulgani M. Al Samarai; Zubaida N. Mustafa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 14-27
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104994

Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a third leading causes of death in worldwide. Little is known about its occurrence of parasite in subjects with cancer patients after receiving chemotherapy.This study aimed to determine, the frequency of E.histolytica in cancer patient admitted to oncology department in Kirkuk Teaching Hospital . Fresh stool specimens collected from93 patients, their age group rangedfrom 1-90years during Febrauary -2013to Feb 2014. E. histolytica /E.disparwere determined in 10/93 (10.7%) by microscopic examination while 33/93 (35.5%) detected by the E. histolytica / E. dispar olyclonal ElLISAtests. E. histolytica/ E. dispar infection were higher in patients with hematogenous cancer (64.4%) as compare with solid tumor (30.8%) .

Antibiotic Resistance Study and Detection of Virulence Gene among Uropathogenic E.coli

Zhian g. nanakali; Zirak F. Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 205-229
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104995

A total of two hundred and fourteen outpatient and inpatient children their ages ranged from 1day to 14 years, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic were studied for urinary tract infections (UTIs) during the period (February to May 2012) at Rapareen Teaching Hospital for Children in Erbil City. Urine samples were collected and examined using microscopic, dipstick test for detection of leukocyte esterase and culture techniques. Isolated organisms were identified using microscopical, morphological and biochemical tests (including recent Vitek 2 system) and the results showed that positive urine cultures were detected in 134 (62.6 %) children, among females were 98 (73 %), while among males were 36 (27 %). Microorganisms that had been isolated from urine culture were mainly Escherichia coli 70 (52.2 %) followed by others. The isolates appeared to be varied in their resistance to antibiotics, and the highest resistance were for ampicillin 67 (95.7 %), while the most effective antibiotic used was imipenem .Total E.coli isolates also tested for their ability to produce hemolysin and the results showed that 27 (38.5%) were α-hemolysin, 9 (12.8%) β-hemolysin and 34(48.5%) were γ-hemolysin producers.. Out of 70 Escherichia coli isolates, 41 (58.5%) were found to be ESBLs producers, while 29 (41.4%) were non ESBLs producers. The plasmid profile of studied E.coli isolates revealed that plasmids were found in 64 (91.6%) of isolates with different molecular weights ranged from 1- more than10 kbp. Curing of plasmid DNA content were conducted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and elevated temperature at 46Co. The results revealed that the curing percentage for isolate E3 was (50%) while for isolate E25 was (41.6%) for antibiotics understudy. On the other hand these two isolates when incubated at 46 Co the curing percentage were (66.6%) and (58.3%) respectively. Also the cured colonies tested for their ability to produce ESBLs and the results demonstrated that the cured colonies cannot produce ESBL indicating that the genes responsible for this trait are plasmid situated.Among 70 UPEC isolates, 61(87.1%) UPEC were positive for the existance of aerobactin virulence gene using PCR.

Petrogenesis of metabasalt rocks in the Bulfat complex, Kurdistan region, Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone

Sarmad A. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 242-252
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104996

Metabasaltes are exposed in the Bulfat complex north of Qaladeza that is a part of the Northwestern Zagros Suture Zone (NZSZ).Petrographic and geochemical study of metabasaltes have been conducted in order to provide insights into the origin and evolution of magmatism found at Neotethyian subducted plate margins and to determine their protolith nature and geodynamic setting. The whole rock chemistry indicates basalt to andesite composition for the metabasaltes. The geochemical investigation strongly suggests that the metabasaltes are derived from calic alkaline basalt and were emplaced in arc tectonic setting.

Some salivary parameters in relation to dental caries - experiences

Sulafa K. Banoosh

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 292-302
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104997

Back ground: The aim of this study is to estimate the relation of salivary sodium, potassium, pH, and flow rate with dental caries - experiences.
Materials and Methods: In this study; 40 healthy- looking subjects were participated, their ages were (18-25) years old included (18) females and (22) males. Dental caries was recorded using DMFS (Decayed, Missed, and Filled) surfaces index teeth and. stimulated saliva was collected before clinical measurement and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of sodium, potassium Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer then salivary pH estimated by using pH meter, and flow rate (ml/min) was estimated by dividing saliva volume (ml) by the fixed collected time (min), All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.
Results: The statistical analysis for the salivary sodium, potassium in both study (with caries) and control (free from caries) groups showed no significant difference in mean 0.9, 0.67 respectively (P>0.05). This is corresponds with the salivary pH and flow rate in both study (with caries) and control (free from caries) groups 0.98, 0.61 respectively (P>0.05).
Conclusion: There are no relation between salivary sodium, potassium, pH, and flow rate with dental caries experience

Compton profile and charge transfer of CaCl2

Sameen F. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 182-191
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104998

The purpose of the present work study the experimental of electron momentum density for CaCl2 which is measured for the first time by imploying 100mCi 241Am Compton spectrometer. To compare experimental momentum densities the Compton profiles has been studied using Hartree–Fock within linear combination of atomic orbitals(LCAO) and simple ionic model. The experimental isotropic profiles are found to be relatively in better agreement with the Hartree–Fock data. To evaluate the charge transfer the ionic model for number of configuration of (Ca+x)(Cl-x/2)2 has been used to estimate the charge transfer on compound formation. This model supports transfer of 0.5 electrons from 4S state of each Ca Atom to 3P State of Cl2.

Radon concentration Measurements in Qaysare of Erbil City

Salih O. Haji; Ali H. Ahmed; Hiwa H. Azeez

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 332-344
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104999

In this study the assessment of indoor radon concentration in the air of Qaysare in Erbil city have been studied by using CR-39 Solid–State Nuclear Track Detector Technique. A total of 18 selected zones inside the suq have been selected to place the dosimeters. The average radon concentration was found to be 21.54 ± 8.017 Bq/m3 ,which is fortunately lower than the standard international limit from 200-600 Bq/m3 as recommended by ICRP, IAEA. The potential alpha energy concentration and annual effective dose have been calculated. A proportional relationship between the annual effective dose and radon concentration within the studied region has been certified.

comparison between electrical and mechanical antenna tilt angle in sulaymaniya mobile phone base stations

Saba F. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105000

The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare impacts of mechanical and electrical down tilt angles of antenna systems to the downlink performance of the sulaymaniya base station. By depending on same height, in three dimensions. The effect of mechanical and electrical antenna down tilt angles have been studied in terms. Simulation studies are performed for sulaymaniya base station. Using the same height measurement by power meter simulator modeling of electrical and mechanical antenna tilt and propagation in three dimensions.In this paper a comparison made between the mechanical and electrical tilt antenna angle for five different intersite directions by choosing Alinaji, Ashty new , Bakhtiary, Industry, and Shoqakan sitesin sulaymaniya base station, using the same height, in three sectors. Simulation results indicate that optimum down tilt angle depends on the network environment also showed that different environments may lead to different optimization results in terms of capacity and coverage performance.

FPGA Implementation of Mean – Max Membership basedDefuzzifier Unit

Asim M. Murshid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105001

The output of fuzzification process, a fuzzy data, is unsuitable for real time applications and needs to be converted into a crisp value. The process of defuzzification is very important and has a significant impact on the overall performance of a fuzzy inference system. This paper proposesa VLSI architectureof a mean max membership (MMM) defuzzification method.The MMM of defuzzification is simple and is being generally used in comparison to more complex centre of gravity defuzzification method. The proposed architectureis modeled in very high speed hardware description language (VHDL) and implemented in Vertex-4 field programmable gate array (FPGA).The functional analysis has revealed that the proposed architecture is implementing MMM based defuzzifier accurately.

Study of γ-ray energy losses in the ionic crystalsusingMonte Carlo code

Abdulhadi M. Ghelab; Duraid B. Deikran; Waad M. AL_Hamdani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 92-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105002

In this paper, measurements were carriedout of thecalculated attenuation of the ranges gamma rays energy(279,356,479,662) KeV and using radioactive sources (Hg203, Ba133, W189, Cs137). In the current results has determined (μL, μm) by using Monte Carlo simulation (i.e. through the account of each of the intensity falling and intensity transmit in samples proposed in search ) .permission has been drawing relationship graphs between the logarithm of the absorbance and thickness proposed for each of the ionic crystals (CsI, CdTe), hence slope graphs relationship represents attenuation coefficient linear and thereafter are calculated attenuation coefficient mass through during the relationship the following (μm = μL / ρ), and the results showed the current search using the Monte Carlo that the values of coefficients mass attenuation of gamma rays in crystals (CsI, CdTe) converge and overlap with each other at high energies the fact that the attenuation depends vitally on Compton scattering , either the values of attenuation coefficients linear showed a variation the obvious fact that the attenuation coefficient depends on the density of the absorbed . Addition, the study was examine to calculate the total atomic cross section and electron density, and the results of this study showed good agreement with the XCOM package.

Assessment knowledge and life-style practices of patients with hypertension among their disease in rural area of Kirkuk city

Abid S. Kumait

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 122-139
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105003

Background: hypertension also known as increase of blood pressure is consider a main factor for heart and vascular disease around world . More than 60 % around world suffering from hypertension and lead to dead more than nine million patients per year.
Aim of the study:- In order to assess patients knowledge and life-style practices for hypertensive patients in rural area of Kirkuk city , find out the relationship between patients knowledge and some socio-demographic characteristic ( age and gender ).
Methodology A descriptive study of a quantitative design was conducted at Alhwija General Hospital in Alhawija district for hypertension patients in Kirkuk city from 3rd July 2013 to the 20th of March 2014. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (200) definitely diagnosed hypertension patients selected from adult patients who were attended to Alhwija General Hospital . For the purpose of data collection, a questionnaire format was constructed which contains (57 ) Demographic data include ( 6 ) items , medical data include (6) items knowledge of the Patients include (36) items and life-style practices for hypertensive patients include (9) items. Statistical analysis was used of 3- likert scale option was used in the rating scale as: (3) for yes , (2 ) for uncertain ,and ( 1 ) for no. Content validity was determined by presenting the questionnaire to a panel of (10) experts. The data were collected through the interviewing . They were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical analysis (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistical data analysis (chi-square) , T. test and ANOVAs .
Results :-The findings of the study indicated that No (62%) of the patients were in age group between (45_64)years , No(74%) were females, No(73%) married ,(73% ) were house wife, (55%) illiterate, (53%) had middle monthly income, also the study show most of the sample were not cigarette smokers that represent (86%),and family history for Hypertension and represent (57.5% )
Conclusions:- The study concluded 70% of the patients have inadequate knowledge related to disease, and 65% of them have inadequate practice regarding to the hypertension control . Also the study concluded that there is a highly significant relationship between hypertension patient’s age and their knowledge.
Recommendation :-Based on the results , the study recommended Educational programs should be designed to increase people knowledge , awareness about their life style .Booklet should be prepared and presented to the patients to advise them to leave high amount salt intake, encourage patients about exercise which is considered one of the contributing factors for hypertension and construct a specialized modern centers for dealing hypertensive patients

QoS provisioning for Composite Burst Assembly with Burst Segmentation in Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Networks

Adnan I. Saleh

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 28-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105004

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the suggested that switching paradigms be used in Internet-Protocol over Wavelength Division Multiplexing (IP over WDM) networks along with Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) and Optical Packet Switching (OPS). It combines the advantages of both OCS and OPS and avoids their limitations. Hence, OBS technology is a promising solution for the backbone of next-generation Internet. Since OBS networks are anticipated to be the core for variety of applications, an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) algorithm is essential to handle the task. One of the major concerns in OBS networks is contention resolution, especially in the case of composite burst assembly. Composite burst assembly scheme suggests the assembling packets of different classes of services into a data burst. In this study, composite burst assembly with a different segmentation size scheme is deployed. Hence, at the ingress (edge) node of OBS network aggregates the arrival low-priority packets into small segments in the data burst while the higher-priority packets are placed into large segments in the data burst. At the core (intermediate) nodes of OBS network, when contention occurs, dropping small segments of burst is deployed. However, the mechanisms are evaluated in terms data loss, and it is observed that the high-priority data have significantly lower losses, when compared to the low-priority data. In addition, based on simulation results, it is shown that an adequate QoS level could be achieved with a simple and easy modification to the OBS with burst segmentation strategy.

Evaluation of Pole-dipole technique (Bristow's method) to detect the dimension of K-3 cave in Haditha area -west Iraq- Case study

Ali M. Abed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 108-121
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105005

K-3 solution cavity is located within Haditha area, Western Iraq. The measurements of Graphical Bristow's method were carried out by using Pole-dipole array, to evaluate the method to detect the dimension of a relatively large natural cave. The cave resulted due to the dissolve of carbonate rocks within Euphrates Formation (Miocene). The actual depth and height of the cave are 38.8m and 29.5m respectively.
Two traverses with a-spacing equal to (5m) and length of about 100m are achived, in South- North and West -Eest direction above the cave site. The data interpretation detect the cavity elongate along West -Eest traverse of 58.6m and indicate an error not exceeded 3% in depth and 2% in height values. The results are concluded that this method is useful to be able to detect subsurface cavities and voids.

Assessment of the quality of drinking water of Halabja City-Iraqi Kurdistan

Attallah O. Kasem; Faisal A. Salih; Nasih F. Othman; Tareq H. Abdullah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 259-272
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105006

The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the various sources of drinking water in the city of Halabja, Iraqi Kurdistan. Forty water samples were collected and analyzed for physic-chemical and biological characteristics. The study included 27 samples from municipality wells and 13 samples from household tap water. Analysis was done for physico-chemical parameters including pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), Chloride (Cl ) , Alkality M, Alkality P, Aluminum (Al) , Copper (Cu) , Calcium (Ca) , Boron (B) and MPN .The results were compared with the standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). All the physico –chemical parameters were found to be within allowable limits. It can, therefore, be concluded that the groundwater in the study area is suitable for drinking and other household purposes. But From the pH values it is clear that the ground water of the study area is alkaline in nature and the total hardness varies between 203-323 mg/l which indicate that water in the deep aquifer is hard hence suggested to Halabjah water director to soften the tube well water before consumption. There were no statistically significant differences between water samples from wells and households in terms of these parameters. Although the drinking water of the area is considered safe. Nevertheless biological surveillance is need especially in hot weather.

Coplanar Maneuvers Transfer for Mission Design with Lowest ∆ʋ using Series Solution

Mayada J. Hamwdi; Wafaa A.Zaki; Ahmed K. Izzet

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105009

Orbital maneuver transfer time is traditionally accomplished using direct numerical sampling to find the mission design with the lowest delta-ʋ requirements. The availability of explicit time series solutions to the Lambert orbit determination problem allows for the total delta-ʋ of a series of orbital maneuvers to be expressed as an algebraic function of only the individual transfer times. Series solution was applied for Hohmann transfer and Bi-elliptic transfer and comparing between Hohmann transfer and Bi-elliptic transfer for long distance. It has been concluded that Hohmann transfer is more appropriate when the ratio of radius of final orbit to initial orbit (R) is less than 11.94.
The purpose of this work is to minimize total full requirements, as well known that no refueling station in space, then using the computed ∆ʋ for determining the mass propellant consumed ∆m, at different specific impulse of the propellants, help us to carefully plane a mission to minimize the propellant mass carried on the rocket.

Uracil Compounds As Inhibitors For Glutamate Oxaloactate Tansaminase (GOT) In Serum Of Some Leukemia Patients

Nadia Q. Haj

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 320-331
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105030

Effect of Uracil’s derivatives on enzyme glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) for sample of normal human and some types of leukemia patients, acute lymphatic(ALL) (11 cases), acute mylosyticl (AML) (4 cases), acute mylomonocyticl (AMOL) (2cases), acute pro- mylocyticl (APL) (3 cases), chronic mylobid (CM) (4 cases) and chronic lymphatic (CLL) (4 cases) is investigated. The ages of patients are between (10-69 years). Some synthesized derivatives of uracil were used as an inhibitors and a comparison between the activity of (GOT) in the presence and absence of inhibitors for two-types of serums under the same conditions is studied. The percentage of inhibition and type of inhibition is also included in this study, which was showed degree of inhibitions in normal individuals between (31% - 73%) and degree of inhibitions in patient’s individuals between (25% - 80%) which showed that inhibition was significantly higher in the sera of patient with leukemia. The activity was determined colorimetrically by Retiman and Frankel method.

Effect of Composition and Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of (ZnO)1-X (TiO2)X Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Huda L. Nida; Abdulkader J. Muhammad; Ali I. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 303-319
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105031

The study describes effect of composition parameter, x, and annealing-temperature, Ta, on structural,and opticalproperties of (ZnO)1-x(TiO2)x thin-films prepared by sol-gel method. Experimental results are explained and theoretical equations are suggested for optical-energy-gap, Eg, and Urbach-energy, Eu in terms of their variation with (x) and (Ta).With increased xand Ta, Eg decreases whereas Eu increases. Thebehavior of Egwas explainedby evokingthatincreasingx will randomize thecrystalperiodicity, andthat annealingtemperature(400,500, and600)⁰Crelaxes the structuremoretowardsbettercrystallineforms. The increase of Eu with increased x was attributed to the lower mass of Ti ions as compared to that of Zn ions. Generally, makingcompositesdestroysthecrystalinityobservedin pureZnO andpureTiO2films butannealingdoesimprovethe qualityof the filmintermsofitsdegreeofcrystal structure.

Nanostructure and optical propertes of porous silicon layer

Shihab A. Motar; Falah A-H. Mutlak; Baha T.Chiad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 345-354
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.105357

In this paper nanostructures Porous silicon layers have been prepared by electrochemical etching (ECE) technique of (111) P-type silicon wafer with a solution Electrolytic HF: ethanol at a concentration of 1:2 with various anodization currents and etching time of 20 min. The morphological, structural and optical properties of nanostructure porous silicon were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. From AFM images, we found that the PS layer has sponge like structure, and average diameter of pore and thickness of PS layer increased with increasing of the anodization currents. X-ray diffraction show that the crystal size was reduced toward nanometric scale, and then a broadening of diffraction peaks (111) was observed. The band gap of the samples was measured through the photoluminescence (PL) peak.