Volume 9, Issue 2, Autumn 2014, Page 1-100

The effect of the type of etchant Solutions on nuclear tracks detector CR-39


Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93718

The aim of this paper is to find the effect of type of etchant solutions on nuclear track detector CR-39 . CR-39 detectors were irradiated with alpha particle from 241Am. The irradiated detectors were etched in a number of some newly introduced etching solutions as well as in conventionally used 7 N NaOH and 7 N KOH at 70 °C. The newly prepared etching solutions included NaOH/1-propanol. Processing conditions were optimized for these etchants. From alpha track diameters, bulk etching velocity VB , track etching velocity VT , etching efficiency η , etching ratio V , sensitivity S and critical Angle θC and their activation energies were determined and compared with that obtained for 7 N NaOH and 7 N KOH at 70 °C

Antibiosis resistant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens

Siham Sh. AL-Salihi; Braihan H. Hameed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93719

Objective: Detection of antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens in Kirkuk, Iraq.
Material and Methods: The present study included (3138) samples collected from different clinical specimens from outpatients and inpatients of both sexes with different ages who were attended Azadi Teaching Hospital/ Kirkuk during the period from October/2007 until May/ 2013.
Results: From a total of 3138 Specimens, 1485 gave positive cultured and 1653 Specimens showed no bacterial growth, 319/3138 (10.17%) isolates were identified as P. aeruginosa. These isolates were identified according to morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Wound and ear swab were important source for P. aeruginosa and isolated more frequently in inpatients than outpatients. The rate of isolation in females 169/319 (52.97%) was higher than males 150/319 (47.01%). Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was performed, and the results showed that all Pseudomonas isolates (100%) were resistant to ampicillin, cephradin and trimoxazole, followed by gentamycin (97.3%), Amoxicillin (97.3), cephalexin (92.3%), neomycin (91.4%), nalidixic acid (89%), nitrofurantoin (87.5%), tobramycin (87.5%) and ciprofloxacin (84%), and the resistance to amikacin was (75%).
Conclusions: P. aeruginosa is multiresistant isolated in a high frequency from wound swabs followed by ear swabs.

Late Side Effects of Radiotherapy

Nejma N. Mubarak; Hussain S. Akbar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93721

The study carried on 40 women with breast cancer treated by radiotherapy at Atomic medical center(Bagdad/Iraq) and Gülhane hospital (Ankara –Turkey) during 2007 . The data was collected by direct interview with the patients whose age range was (48-75) years . The research done after ( 2-11) years of treatment. Mild to severe type of mouth dryness was noticed in almost all the cases with variety of teeth and gum problems.80% of the patients developed diabetes mellitus, 30% of them were with no family history of disease.Edema of the arm (lymphoedema) in the same side of the affected breast occurred in 25% of the patients. Cardiac manifestations recorded in 15% including dyspnea due to congestion and pericardial effusion (diagnosed by Echocadiography) , cardiacmyopathy due to radiotherapy may cause such manifestations . Fibrosis of the lung causing shortness of breath on exertion and liability to chest infection and allergy diagnosed by chest tomography in 10% of the patients. 10% of the patients developed cataract in one eye (in the same side of the tumor).The ionizing radiation which is used in treatment of malignancy may cause cell damage in healthy tissues exposed to it because of its high energy capable to remove electron from the atoms in the biological molecules of the cells leading to their damage and appearance of some clinical problems in the treated patients.Modern sophisticated methods are designed such as radio-immunotherapy, conformal radiotherapy that match the case precisely, using radio-sensitizer drugs and accurate dosing in order to reduce the unwanted clinical effects of radiotherapy and the doctors have to balance the likelihood of cure with the risk of side effects.

Geological Implications of Geophysical Enhancement Techniques in Kirkuk Oilfields Area

Marwa. Kashmoola; Marwan Mutib; Mahmood Al- Mufarji

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 43-59
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93722

The study area is located in Kirkuk governorate in the north–eastern part of Iraq within the footills zone which includes the transverse Kirkuk block that contains oilfield anticlines (Baba, Bai Hassan and Khabaz) trending NW to SE. The previous studies have pointed out that there are tectonic faults and sub-blocks in and around the study area.
The enhancement processings were applied on the available geophysical data in the purpose of identifying the tectonic and structural implications via a correlation with the previous petroleum and academic studies. The first directional derivatives of the gravity data revealed the presence of three deep seated secondary blocks coinciding with the boundary of central faulting and Kirkuk fault. The map of the math's difference between the maps obtained by filters (8 & 90) delineated the sub-blocks boundaries. Furthermore, the math's difference between the maps obtained by filter (8) and the original Bouguer is characterized by associating with faults of south eastern parts of the study area. The map of math's difference between geogridding and local polynomial data is also displayed that the structures of Bai Hassan, Khabaz and Jambur representing a huge geological structure (separated with saddles) parallel to Kirkuk structure.
The first directional derivative map of the geomagnetic data is also illustrated the deep sub-blocks underneath the structures of the study area. As well, the map of the math's difference between original total magnetic field and local polynomial is displayed the presence of shallow magnetized bodies.

Statistical study of urinary tract infections at all in children under the age of five in the city of Kirkuk.

Selda Saeed Yaseen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 22-42
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93749

This study includes isolation and identification of urinary tract infections bacteria in children (240) urine sample were collected from age (1 day – 5 years ) old who had signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections . diagnosed by the physician at deferens city in Kirkuk city for the period (1/10/2012 to 1/4/2013), the result showed a significant bacterial growth in 158 (65.8%) urine sample and 43 (27.22%) cases were males and 115 (72.78%) cases were females. some factor related to the prevalence of disease were studied such as age, sex, residence, educational level of parents and the distribution of infection through the study period and health status of parents , the result showed that the highest proportion (30.44%) of infection were within the age group (1 – 2 years) and (67.72%)of infection in children who live in city ,the rate of monthly infection highest between November and February (22.15%) (20.25%) and (58.8%) of infection children come from alliterated parents, and (54.43%) was obtained from children their parents suffer from urinary tract infection , (24.68%) of infection in children suffering the diabetes mellitus , (62.79%) in children who were non circumcision and (48.10%) in children were suffer the diarrhea . The bacterial isolation were identified according to microscopically and biochemical testing , gram negative E.coli was common isolate(49.36%) followed by Klebsiella (20.25%), Proteus spp. (14.55%) and Pseudomonas (6.32%), While gram positive bacteria staph. aureus represent (9.5%). Microscopic examination of the patients urine sample to detect the present of pus cell, crystal,epithelium cell,cast, R.B.C as well as possible of deliberately bacteria in urine sediment under high power of the microscope.The isolation were testes for antibiotic sensitivity using 10 antibiotics , some of them were commonly used for treatment of urinary tract infection in children and the isolates showed high resistance against betalactam antibiotics ( Penicillin's ) while most of isolates were sensitive to Quinolones.

A Study of the Physical and Chemical Features of Three Well Water in Kirkuk City and Determining their Algal Content

Taswos M. K. Ahmed AL-Shwany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93751

The present study was conducted about some physical-chemical properties and algal composition in three artesian wells in Kirkuk city Iraq from November-2010 to jun-2011. The results showed that water quality of the studied artesian wells was characterized by an increase of electrical conduction and chloride ions therefore it causes the land to be salty ,but it can be used for irrigation in soils with high light transmittance and for agricultural crops resistant to salinity moreover it showed that it contains Oxygen above critical standard . Statistical analysis doesn't show any significance difference between physical and -chemical properties of studies wells in study period. About 37 Algal taxa have been classified in this study. Diatoms was the most dominant Algal (56.756%) followed by (Chlorophyceae) ( 16.216%) then followed by Blue green Algae (Cyanophyceae) (13.513%) then followed by (Euglenophyceae) ( ( %8.108 ) at last followed by ( Dinophycea ) ( 5.405%) .

Effect of Heat Treatments on Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Aluminum –Cupper Alloys.

Adel M. Bash

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 79-100
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93828

In this study, aluminum-cupper alloys were prepared, where cupper amount was added to aluminum in different percentages 4%, 5.5%.not exceeds degree of saturation 6% of the weight of cupper. Alloys were prepared by melting and pouring in steel molds .Solution heat treatment and aging are carried out at a constant temperature of 180 oC for different aging times .Object of the present work is to study the effect of addition of cupper and heat treatment on wear resistance of the pure aluminum .A pin – on-Disc technique was used to evaluate wear rate of the specimens .Under variable laboratory condition represented by effect of five different normal loads and five different sliding speed on wear rate were
examined for variable sliding time while hardness of steel disc was 35HRC .The result shows that the wear rate increased with increasing applied normal loads and with increasing sliding time .The result also show that the alloy Al-5.5%Cu has more wear resistance than that of
Al-4%Cu .In additional, wear resistance were improved by heat treatment when compared to the base alloys.

Description of Fleshfly Instars Sarcophaga Argyrostoma (Rob.Desvoidy) (Diptera:Sarcophagidae)

Nabeel A. Mawlood; Abbas M. Faraj

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 60-78
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.93829

This work includes a detailed description of fleshfly instars, which were collected on the dead animals and some of plant flowers in Erbil governorate from the period of February until July/ 2013. The taxonomic keys for larval stages were prepared according to the characters of anterior and posterior spiracles. Some of important parts were drawn. The dates of collection and distribution localities were recorded.

Animal hygiene assessment by spontaneous reactivation and aging kinetics of pesticide compounds

A. Nkhwa; Najdat Ali Al-Kadhi; Mohammed Talat Abass; Kasim Sakran Abass

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2014.96241

The main aims of this paper were to investigate the rate of spontaneous reactivation of butyrylcholinesterase from plasma and serum of farm animals inhibited by the organophosphorus, chlorfenvinphos and trichlorfon. Organophosphorus are among the most toxic of all substances that cause poisoning in farm animals and are the most frequently encountered insecticides, commonly detected in agricultural products, animal-derived foodstuffs, environmental samples and home use and represent a significant potential health risk.The first-order rate constants obtained for spontaneous reactivation (ks) for chlorfenvinphosand trichlorfon for plasma and serum was ranged between 0.012 to 0.811h-1, while aging of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase follows the kinetics of a first-order reaction with rate constants aging (ka) ranged between 0.004to 0.653 h-1. Half-time (t1/2) for spontaneous reactivation and aging are higher in trichlorfon compared to chlorfenvinphos and ranged from 1.1 to 28.9h (sheep), 2.1 to 63 h (cattle) and 2.8 to 53.3 h (goat), respectively