Volume 8, Issue 3, Summer 2013, Page 1-74

High Frequency Pulse Width Modulation Converters

Ahmed Hassan Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 34-47
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83029

The delta modulation technique permits an accurate of an arbitrary reference. Spectrum of the current going
through an inductive load shows a very low THD. Moreover, notches are located aroun d the sample frequency
multiples, which is of interest for converters without output low-pass filter. In this paper, we demonstrate that the
delta modulator structure can be easily implemented when regulating the converter output current going through
an inductive load. Then, we propose a mean for computing the load current spectrum using the Laplace and
Fourier transforms.

Evaluation of acetylcholine esterase activity in the blood of workers exposed

Aydin S. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83030

Introduction:Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides pose major environmental pollution problems and
health hazards to people and animals. These insecticides inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous
tissues and neuromuscular junctions. The measurement of blood ChE is a useful tool for monitoring exposure to
organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The purpose of the present study was to use a modified
electrometric technique for measuring blood ChE in workers exposed to the organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides in Kirkuk, Iraq.
Method: A modified electrometric method was used to measure ChE activity in the whole blood of male workers
(n = 40) exposed to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, for a duration of not less than six years.
Healthy male volunteers (n =12) not exposed to insecticides served as controls. Following in vitro inhibition of
pseudo cholinesterase by quinidine sulfate, true cholinesterase activity was estimated in the blood of the subjects.
After in vitro addition of the organophosphate (chlorpyrifos and methidathion, 0.5 and 1 µM) and carbamate
(carbaryl, 5 and 10 µM) insecticides to the reaction mixtures, inhibitions of blood ChE were also determined.
Results: Mean values of ChE activities (pH/20 min) in the whole blood of healthy non-exposed subjects and
insecticide-exposed workers were 1.41and 1.2, respectively. Whole blood ChE activities of the exposed workers
was significantly lower than those of healthy individuals.
Conclusions: These findings indicate the usefulness of the modified electrometric method for monitoring blood
ChE activity in insecticide-exposed workers and there was a significant effect of these Organophosphate and
carbamate insecticides on the activity of Ach esterase in workers blood. .

Measurement of radon gas concentration in cement samples by using

Hassan. M. Jaber AL-Taii

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 48-54
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83420

In this work, we have measured the concentration of radon gas in eight cement samples from different
origins by using long-term measurement of radon decay products with solid state track detectors which
alpha particles that emitted from radon gas was detected using (LR115II) nuclear track detector.
The obtained results show that, the highest average radon gas concentration in cement samples was
found in Iraq cement (Samawa) sample, which was (10.625 Bq/m
) ,while the lowest one was found in
(Saudi) sample, and found to be (2.486Bq/m
). The present results show that the radon gas
concentration in all cement samples is not below the allowed limit from (ICRP) agency.

Synthesis of Some Mannich and 2,5-Disubstituted4-Thiazolidinone Compounds Derived from 4-amino Sulphamethaoxazole

Khalid A. Al-Badrany; Ayad S. Hamad; Ihmood K. Al-Juboori

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83421

4-Chloro acetyl amino sulphamethaoxazole (A1) was synthesized by the reaction of amino
sulphamethaoxazole with chloro acetyl chloride, Then refluxed with ammonium thiocyanate to obtain
thiazoldine-4-one (A
2) . (A2) was stirred with formaldehyde and various secondary amines to gain 5 novel
compounds Mannich bases(A
).and 2,5-Disubstituted thiazolidine-4-one (A
8-11) were synthesized by the
reaction of substituted benzyldehyd with Compound (A2) . The structure of the synthesized compounds are
confirmed by I.R,
C-NMR spectra and Some chemical physical data

Determination Medical Parameter and the Most Effective Antihypertensive

lamea Mohammad Ahmed; Basema Sadeq Ahmed; Suheila Shamse El-den Tahir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83422

Hypertension is one of the major modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral
vascular disease and renal failure. The aim of treating hypertension is to maximize therapeutic efficacy
without untoward side effects. The study population was carried out in emergency department of Razgary
and Jumhury hospitals in Hawler. Hypertension was highly prevalent among aged persons between 61-70 years 33(27.5%) while the lowest percentage were recorded in the age group 30-40 years 8(6.6%).
Female population showed higher percentage 53.3% than male 46.6%.Duration of hypertension more
than five years 80 (66.6%) which was higher than those less than two years 8 (6.6%). Family history of
hypertension appeared as strong risk factor of hypertension that recoded 76(63.3%). According to
educational level found the hypertension was higher in Illiterate-primary education 55 (45.8%) than
Intermediate –secondary school education 38(31.6%) and lowest among highest educational level
27(22.5%). Body mass index (BMI) had effect on percentage of hypertension among overweight patients
62 (51.6%) followed by obesity39 (32.5%)and lowest in patients with normal weight 19(15.8%).
Co-morbidity was observed in70(58.3%)among which diabetes mellitus was28(23.3%)followed by
cardiovascular disease 19(15.8%) and hypercholesterolemia was11(9.1%) . Types of drug used to treat
hypertension show diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibiter were the most drug used
26(21.6%) and 25(20.8%) respectively followed by combined drug and calcium channel blocker were
19(15.8%),18(15%) respectively then angiotensin receptor blocker17(14.1%)and beta -blocker used in

Prevalence of Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending Primary Health

Najlaa Kadhim Ali Iqbal Sameen Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 12-25
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83430

Introduction: Anemia in pregnancy is considered one of the major risk factors contributing to maternal
deaths in developing countries. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anemia
among pregnant woman according the hematological and biochemical parameters in Kirkuk health care
Patients and methods: This study involved a total of 132 woman attending primary health care centers in
Kirkuk city for the period from 1
July 2010 to 30
March 2011 in Iskan and Rahem-Awa region. They
were consisted of three groups, Group one (G1) consisted of 87 pregnant women, second Group (G2)
consist of 30 non pregnant women and third Group (G3) consisted of 15 w ere not married. They were
investigated for hematological tests, Hb, PCV, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and biochemical test
copper, magnesium, zinc, albumin. Anemia is classified as mild anemia from 10 -10.9g/dl, moderate
anemia from 8-8.9g/dl, and severe anemia < 8g/dl.
Result: The result showed that there was significant difference in level of Hb, PCV, RBC, MCH,
between the pregnant woman and control groups; regarding the difference in trimesters the most
influenced parameters were Hb, PCV, RBC, and MCV. The educational state had significant influence on
the level of PCV, MCV, and MCH. The pregnancy trimesters had significant effect on albumin level,
copper and zinc, while there was significant difference in level of zinc according to education.
Conclusion: It was concluded that there was no anemia in this study among pregnant woman although
the Hb, PCV, RBC values among pregnant were lower than non pregnant but 37.9% of pregnant women
had mild anemia.

Chemical Storage of Solar Energy Using Hydrazones

Nashwan O. Tapabashi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 55-64
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.83434

Hydrazones derived from 4- phenoxybutanoic acid were reprepared and their oxidation potentials in
Micellar-Ethanol solution were measured using cyclic voltammetric technique. These compounds were used as
photosensitizers in three component system containing methyl viologen (MV
) and Na2EDTA. Different
behaviors of the hydrazones were observed as photosensitizers depending on their oxidation potential values and
their stability in irradiation solution. Rate constants of methylviologen reduction by the photochemical active
hydrazones were recoded and hydrogen was photoproduced using TiO
2 as catalyst