Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 2013, Page 1-50

Digital Image Contract Computation and Enhancement Using Statistical Methods

Abdullah Hammod Muhammad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77595

The optical imaging systems, do not give a perfect and ideal image. But mostly give images with limited resolutions i.e. give images with blur edges. This blurring attributed to two main reasons. The diffraction of light and Aberrations of the optical imaging system. The most important information and details in the image that contained in image edges. The fidelity criteria are evaluate the quality, depending on the whole image plane or in homogenous image regions. So that we devoted in this study to evaluate image quality depending on compute the image contrast in edge regions, and introduce robust quantitative measures to determine image quality, then estimate the efficiency of the various techniques in image processing applications. In this study we suggested new techniques to calculate image contrast (visibility) and studying it as a function of number of smoothing iterations from using mean filter and a function of gray level resolution. We only study the contrast in edge regions where we used Soble operator to find image edges. The suggested techniques are:-
1- The direct technique for compute image contrast this depending on determine the largest, and smallest image elements in edge regions.
2- The statistical method to estimate the contrast that based on determines the mean and standard deviation in the image edge regions.
The results give high agreement among the various suggested methods in determines image contrast. As we can theoretical guested, that the contrast reduced with reducing spatial and image gray level resolutions.
In this study we also apply the direct and statistical methods to evaluate the performance of histogram equalization and the logarithmic illumination enhancement techniques. Where the results, show that the contrast enhanced by using histogram equalization and reduced by using logarithmic illumination enhancement method. Here can be say that we get a robust quantitative measures that could be used to estimate the efficiency of the image processing techniques, based on determine image contrast and find the amount of variation in contrast that causes from the processing steps.

The anti- microbial activity of the aquatic, alcoholic and volatile oil extracts of rosa damascena l. Petals

Bushra Ali Kadhim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 25-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77600

The Petals of Rosa damascena L. had used in this research to prepare three types of extracts which were aquatic, alcoholic and volatile oil . A set of chemical tests were made on these prepared extracts, as well as, using the Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer to detect the active positions in these extracts. The results showed the foundation of some active compounds (Tannines, Alkaloides, Saponins, Flavonoides, Terpens, Steroids and Volatile Oil) in prepared extracts of Rosa damascena L., as well as, the anti-microbial activity of these extracts was tested on eleven types of microorganisms (contain seven types of bacteria and four types of fungi) which were isolated from burns and wound infections. The resulls of stastical analysis by using L.S.D. test at probability level 0.05 had proved that the concentrations 100, 250 mg/ml of aquatic extract had considered as the MIC and MBC for Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans respectively, while the two concentrations 50, 250 mg/ml of aquatic extract had considered as the MIC and MBC for Staphylococcus aureus , Burkhorderia mallei and Candida tropicalis respectively, and about the concern of Proteus vulgaris and Epidermophyton floccosum , the concentration 125 mg/ml had inhibited their growth and the concentration 250 mg/ml had killed them . Also the results affirmed there was no affect of aquatic extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in all prepared concentrations. The results showed that the two concentrations 16, 32 mg/ml of alcoholic extract were inhibited and killed for Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas flouresence respectively, while the two concentrations 4, 32 mg/ml of the same extract were inhibited and killed for Burkhorderia mallei, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, as well as, Candida tropicalis respectively. The results of this research also indicated that the growth of Epidermophyton floccosum , Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was inhibited and killed by the alcoholic extract at the concentrations (8, 16), (8, 32), (4, 16) and (8, 32) mg/ml respectively. As well as, the results reffered to the inhibitory activity of volatile oily extract on the growth of all microorganisms under study at the concentrations between (1:2) and (1:3), while the killed concentrations between (1:3) and (1:4).

Study the Effect of The Annealing and Doping on the Some Optical Properties of (ZnS) Thin Films

Suzan Abdullah hasan; Abdul Majeed Iyada Ibraheem; r Naji Majeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77602

In this research we study the effect of Annealing and doping by 10% Cupper on some optical properties of (ZnS) thin films (energy gap, absorption coefficient , extinction coefficient) as a function of photon energy .The optical properties were studied through Visible and Ultra-volit wavelength range (300-900nm) using UV-visible spectrometer, these properties were studied before and after annealing and doping . It is found that the energy gap was (3.6eV) before annealing and doping but after annealing and doping it is found (3.7eV, 3.4eV) respectively. Absorption and extinction coefficient increased after annealing and decreased after doping .

Geophysical study of the Chame - Rezan Dam Site, Sulaimaniyah City, NE IRAQ

Bakhtiar Qadir Aziz; Peshawa M. ALI; Omar Qadir Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77631

A 1D and 2D resistivity surveys were carried out over the area of Chame Rezan dam site which is located about 33 km to the Northwest Sulaimaniyah City, NE Iraq. Schlumberger array were conducted in 34 locations with AB/2 spacing equal to 200m, as well as two representative Winner-Schlumberger profiles were laid out with electrode spacing equal to 5 m. The study concluded that the combination of 1D and 2D resistivity surveys is successful in identifying and producing a complete high-resolution image of the subsurface. The results were obtained show excellent correlation with the several bore holes were drilled on the recommendation of the surveys. The depths obtained by interpretation of 1D sounding points is slightly smaller than the actual depths recorded from the boreholes at the location of both dam abutments where the dip of the beds is ranging from 40 to 70 degrees. Consequently more reliable depths are obtained in the same locations from 2D resistivity profiles as well as the range of resistivities and lateral changes were obtained by 2D tomography are most reliable. In addition, the study reveals to the existence of a recent sediments has thickness ranging from 7 to 25 m overlain a low resistive Kolosh Formation.

The Study oF Resistance Pattern of Some Bacteria Isolated from Child Blood to Two Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Eman Tajer Abdullah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77633

The present study was conducted to isolate pathogenic bacteria from the blood and to determine their resistance pattern with two aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin). Two thousand four hundred and eleven blood samples were collected from children aged ≤ 15 years old who admitted to Kirkuk Pediatric General Hospital from Janurary2009 to August2010. The all rate of positive cases were 223 samples (9.2%) which included bacteremia in samples with the rate 83.4% for gram negative bacteria followed by 16.6% for gram positive bacteria. The following bacterial species were isolated: E.coli 91 (40.8 %), Klebsiella spp. 44 (19.7%) ,Staphylococcus aureus 34 ( 15.3%) , Pseudomonas spp. 20 (9%), Proteus spp. 20 (9%), Salmonella spp. 11 ( 4.9 %) , while Enterococcus spp. was found in only 3 culture (1.3%). The most common etiologic agents of pediatric bacteremia were E.coli andKlebsiella spp., together isolated from 60.5% of the blood samples studied. The rate of infection in males 58.8% was higher than in females 42.2% (P> 0.05).Considering the age groups the results showed that infants under one month of age were more susceptible to bacteremia than other age groups, in a rate of 114 (51.1%), but statistically the relationship between the infection and age was not significant(P> 0.05). The resistance rate of the isolated bacteria to gentamicin and amikacin was studied by disc diffusion method. The results showed the resistance rate of both gram-positive& gram –negative bacteria to amikacin were 8.1% &7.5%respectively lower than gentamicin 48.7%&25.3% respectively. Finally, amikacin was the most effective antibiotic than gentamicin among blood bacterial isolates.

Biophysical effects of continuous X-rayon the level of

Samira Hassan Abdulah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 27-36
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77636

The thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. An important component in the synthesis of thyroid hormones is iodine. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxin (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. The ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is roughly (20 to 1). The level of thyroxin is affected by radiation. The aim of the study to determine and to assess the effects of continuous X-rays on thyroxin level in vitro quantitive measures. Thirty patients with hyperthyroidism disease were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were tested and irradiated by x-ray radiation source of total dose rate (0.4).Gry/sec. The level of thyroxin were determine before and after irradiation .The results showed that the level.of.thyroxine.are.significantly.reduced.(P<0.01).after.x-ray.irradiation. It is concluded that x-ray ionizing radiation, reduced thyroxin level by free radical forming and protein damaging.

Child Safety Practices of Parents in Kirkuk City

Hatawo Hasan salih Asmaa Hussien hamood; Mohammed Mustafa Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2013.77637

Poisoning and road traffic accidents (R.T.A.) are considered nowadays a problem to the health authorities [Sznajder et al, 2001]. The majority of poisoning reported to the American Association Control Center result from ingestion; and children below 6 years old comprise 2.7 percent of facilities [Erickson, 2002]. The majority of poisoning reported to the American Association Control Center result from ingestion; and children below 6 years old comprise 2.7 percent of facilities [Erickson, 2002].
The aim of the study are to evaluate the safety practices applied by the parents for the storage of drugs, antiseptic, matches boxes, and kerosene in their home; to estimate the prevalence of road traffic accidents among children; and to find any association between it and some demographic factors. This study is a cross-sectional one done in Pediatric consultation unit of Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk city during the period 1st. Jan.-30th April 2011; where 200 parents
(father or mother) having children 1-6 years old and attending the pediatric unit for solving health problem of their children and chosen randomly and interviewed by a special questionnaire and consist of information about age and educational level of the parents; whether the mother working outside the home or not, number of their children, and methods of storage of drugs, antiseptic substances ,and kerosene in their home, and any previous history of poisoning or R.T.A. The study concluded that the majority of the families kept their drugs ,antiseptic material ,matches boxes, and kerosene in unsafe places (77.5 %, 75.5 %,74%,and 10% respectively ) and about 19% of children whose parents allowed them to play bicycle had history of R.T.A., and 15.3% of children play (unsupervised by their parent) in the street exposed to R.T.A.