Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2012, Page 1-170

ِA simulation of effect the change in capillary tube diameter on a compression refrigeration system performance

Tamir K. Salim; Samer M. Khalaf; Saad S. Farhan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44370

A simulation compression refrigeration system study was presented in this research depending on the change of the capillary tube diameter and using the refrigerants (R134a, R12, R500 and R152a).
the tests were done for two capillary tube diameters (2.25,3mm) and changing the volumetric flow rate range for (R134a) (0.15-0.3L/min) with fixed capillary tube length at (L=130cm).
The results showed that for (R152a, R134a Exp.) the (COP) decreases by (11.37,22.8%) respectively as the mass flow rate increases by (58.71%), and decreases by (6.34,7.66%) respectively as the capillary tube diameter increases, while the values of (COP) for (R134a Theo.,R12,R500) are converged. Also it was declared that when the condenser temperature increases by (1.73%) the (COP) for all refrigerants and for both capillary tube diameters will decrease.
The study showed that the compressor compression power increases by (72.43, 65.73%) as the condenser temperature increases, and decreases as the capillary tube diameter increases by (8.78, 7.5%) for refrigerants (R152a, R134a Exp.) respectively, with convergence the values of (TCP) for (R134a Theo.,R12,R500). Also this study showed that the cooling capacity increases for all refrigerants, where the largest value was for (R152a) and the lowest value was for (R134a Exp.), as the evaporator temperature increases by (3.81%) ,but the cooling capacity decreases as the capillary tube diameter increases.
Through this study it was found that the best diameter used is (2.25 mm) at fixed length, with decreasing the capillary tube diameter from (3 to 2.25 mm) and at volumetric flow rate (0.2 L/min) it was found as an average for all refrigerants increasing for compression power by (4.2%), increasing of cooling capacity by (10.2%) and decreasing the coefficient of performance by (5.8%).

Biological Activity & Some Transition Elements Complexes For 1,3,4 Ox diazole Derivatives On Growth Of Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Ferdos Mohamed Ali; Youssra Jaleel Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 22-34
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44371

In this research the biological activity studied of O-hydroxy benzoyl hydrazid (AY) which used to prepare 2-thiol-5(ortho-hydroxy phenyl) 1,3,4 oxadiazole and their derivatives as follow:first the L1 = 5- (ortho-hydroxy phenyl) –2- (acetyl methyl thio) 1,3,4 oxadiazole (AMTO) and The complexes of this ligand (L1) with transition metals ions (Cr+3,Mn+2,Fe+3,Co+2,Ni+2), against the growth of three bacteria taken from the microbiology labrotories at Azady hospital/kirkuk, these bacteria were: ) Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis). The proposed structures of the prepared chemical compounds and the prepared complexes were characterized and identified according to the elemental analysis (C.H.N), Infrared ,UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic absorption, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity techniques was studied. The investigation of biological activity of the prepared compounds tested using plate- Agar well diffusion method. The biological activity of the prepared compounds and complexes were found to be more effective than sulfadiazine that used as standered drug due to similar chemical structures of the prepared compounds and complexes which contains sulfur and nitrogen atoms, the minimum effective concentration of the prepared complexes was ( 25 ppm) while the minimum effective concentration of sulfadiazine were ( 100 ppm) .

Synthesis, Characterization of Some Derivative Piperic Acid, Which Extraction from Black Pepper.

Iman A. Yass

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 45-59
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44372

Piperic acid was extracted from black pepper by ethanol as asolvent, then it reacted with solution of bromine in carbon tetra chloride to make tetra bromine derivative. Also the acide reacted with bromine water solution to make bromohydren derivative which cyclzation occurs in presence of sodium hydroxide solution to form epoxide derivative. This cycle will opend with aniline derivative to synthesid some derivative amino alcohole for acid.
The structure of syntheside compounds have been established by using IR and UV. Visible, melting point and TLC. The biological activities are studied against four different kinds of bacteria .

Study of Spectral and Thermodynamics properties for Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Abdul-Hakim Shakor M

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 60-78
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44394

In this research theoretical semi – empirical calculations using PM3 method to study the molecular structure for H2S in Infra-red regin by using MOPAC, it is semi-empirical molecular orbital program ,Mopac using semi-empirical quantum mechanic for Hamiltonen through PM3 method, then study and calculated some of spectroscopy and thermodynamics properties for this molecule and determine the minimum total energy at equilibrium structure for molecule, this study and calculation yielded the equilibrium geometry distance, energetic value, for H2S total energy was (-217.03eV) at equilibrium distance(1.3Å)
Through unharmonic potential of energy curve we founded the spectroscopic dissociation energy for this molecule is(8.81eV). The main purpose from this research calculate study the fundamental vibrational frequencies, absorption spectrum of molecule was between (1192.72 ,1808.53, 1812.91) cm-1 and intensity a absorption band was (7.58, 12.63 , 15.197) respectively.
And using Hyper-chem program including occupied molecular orbital and unoccupied molecular orbital with highest energy value ( HOMA) and lawest energy value (LUMO), Were for H2S (EHOMO = -9.63eV) (ELUMO= 0.552eV) and calculate energy gab between EHOMO, ELUMO was ( Eg = 10.128eV) .
From final matrix we get on the Thermodynamics properties at many degree of heating such as heat of formation (∆Hf) for H2S was (- 0.897 kcal/mal ) enthalpy ( 2397.6599 cal/mol), heat capacity ( 8.214 cal/ mal.K), entropy( 54.904 cal/mal .K ). And Gibbs free energy ( -14.0737 kcal/ mol).These properties taken at standard heating degree (298K) and agreement with experimental result.

Using of Climatic Water Balance to Assess The Reality of Groundwater Recharge in Baiji – Tikrit Sub Basin North West of Iraq

Omer S. Ibrahiem; Nawfal H. Ali; Sabbar A. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 79-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44395

The Annual and monthly averages of rainfall and temperature of the tow tikrit and baiji meteorological stations showed that the general annual rainfall is (185) mm. The maximum rainfall is 35.5 mm in January and the minimum is (0.0) mm in august while the general monthly averages of temperature ranging between (8.7 C° in January - 36.5 C° in july ). After calculating the potential evapotranspiration values PE by thornthwait method then derive the values of water surplus WS in order to determined the amount of water that permeates to the groundwater level for each zone in the basin. After the main elements was selected depending by equations that has been developed for each zone as follows : 26 % of rainfall permeates to replenish the groundwater in the basin when the zone A lack o opportunity to allow infiltration of rainfall to the groundwater level for both A and B zones are based on monthly averages of whole surveillance period ( 1989 – 2009 ). The soil moisture amount (SM) is 25 mm for the zone A and 75 mm for each of A and B zones. When we search in the years that exceeds the general annual averages of rainfall ( 185 ) mm , founded that there are (9) years beyond the mentioned averages and account for about (43 %) of surveillance period where the general annual average equal to (242.39) mm and maximum monthly average of the rainfall is ( 41.86) mm in march and lowest average is (0.0) mm in july and august. Depending on these years mentioned, the water surplus for both zones C and B , showed that an increase about ( 29.93) mm from the average of annual rainfall equal to (242.39) mm and (12.34 %) from the rainfall permeates to fed the groundwater in B zone. 7 % adopted as a surface runoff from the rainfall equal to (16.96) mm and the ratio groundwater recharge in C zone is equal to (12.97 ) mm. The variation in groundwater values of recharge along the basin ( A,B and C ) is only a reflection for the type and texture of the deposits on the hand and varying depths, simple differences in topography and evolution of surface water drainage especially in the western part of C zone on the other hand . while the demonstrating convergence of inventories renewed values for the three zones although they have different area and water depths pervasive in all of them but the justification for this approach the increase in area of zones A , B and C, accompanied by decreasing values of deep water permeates for each zone must be noted here that the opportunity to renew stocks of ground water for both B and C amounting to 42 % of the prospect for renewed stocks of water in the zone A as well as the presence of large quantities of leaked water from the liquefaction and sewage water in zone A .

Prevalence of Antisperm Antibodies in Asthenospermic Infertile Male

Raad H. N; Muhammad A. A; Hussein Q. A

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44507

Recently there has been a lot of discussion about the role that the immune system plays in infertility. The immune system generally works to protect the body from foreign cells and bacteria. Sometimes though problems within the immune system prevent it from working. Many couples facing infertility issues may actually have immune system dysfunction which is preventing them from conceiving .luckily new. tests are now available to pinpoint these immune factors in infertility properly.
prospective study was carried out in the infertility clinic of Azadi teaching hospital in Kirkuk city from January 2007 to January 2009.The study included 155 male with primary or secondary infertility with abnormal seminal fluid analysis specifically decreased motility of the sperms (asthenospermia), their ages ranged from(18-55)years. The entire patients included in the study have been proved to be infertile as they fail to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception. All patients were subjected to a special questionnaire used for analytical purposes; both blood and the seminal fluid samples of all were examined for presence of antisperm antibodies.
the study showed that 75 patients (48.4%) out of 155 patients showed a positive antisperm antibody (ASA ) which is statistically significance (P value 0.04), 55 patients (73.3% ) from those with positive results showed ASA in their serum, while 20 patients (26.6%) of them showed ASA in their seminal fluids which showed is also statistically significance (P value 0.03)
in conclusion the study shows that an antisperm antibody has an impact on asthenospermia and infertility.

Laparoscopy for Undiagnosed Ascites

Shabander T. FatHulla

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44548

A prospective study of 18 paients with undiagnosed ascitis ,the usual methods for searching the causes of ascitis were failed laparoscopy done for these patients, the procedure and results discussed with special concentration on the value of laparoscopy in medical problems.
Laparoscopy is safe and accurate in diagnosing the cause of ascites when etiology of ascitis not diagnosed by conventional methods.

The Effect of Ginger on The Histopatholoical Lesions Of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mice Liver in Comparison with Cephalexin

R.Z. Shinashal; S. Abd Al. Abdalmajeed; R.K. AL- Sultan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 14-23
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44550

The present study carried out to investigate the effect of Ginger in comparison with Cephalexin on the histopathological lesions of liver mice occurred after induction of Salmonella typhimurium orally at a concentration of (1 × 104 cfu/ml), then (7) days the extreme susceptibility of liver at female mice to the infection. Histopathological examination of liver revealed severe infiltration of inflammatory cells and massive tissue necrosis, involved in this study were 15 mice that were divided into 5 groups, 3 mice in each group (A, B, C, D and E). Those in group A, B, C, and D, constituted the test groups whereas group E served as the control for 7 days, test group A abandoned without any treatment, but group B was fed with ginger per day , also group C inoculated with cephalexin per day, otherwise the group D was inoculated with normal saline per day, group E served as the control per day, the histopathological observations show that difference between them .

Inhibition of Microbial Biofilm on Different Surfaces Treated with Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus spp.

Sehand K. Arif

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 24-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44551

Background: The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactants in the medical field has increased during the past decade. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases and as therapeutic agents. In addition, their role as antiadhesive agents against several pathogens indicates their utility as suitable anti-adhesive coating agents for medical insertional materials leading to a reduction in a large number of hospital infections. In the present study the ability of the Lactobacillus acidophilus biosurfactant to inhibit the Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on Foley catheter and microtiter plate wells were investigated.
Materials and Methods: The surfaces were coated with biosurfactant solution, subsequently the tested bacteria were inoculated to the surfaces. Quantification of biofilm was performed by a spectrophotometric method (measuring the optical density (OD540)), which measures the total biofilm biomass, including bacterial cells and extracellular matrix.
Results: The amounts of biofilm were determined after 24 hr of incubation. biosurfactant layers caused a marked inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on microtiter plate well (OD= 0.227) and Foley catheter (OD= 0.112) compare with uncoated surfaces (OD= 0.439, 0.297 respectively), similar antiadhesive activity were obtained on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm, as the amount of biofilm formation on microtiter plate well (OD=0.118) and Foley catheter (OD=0.099) were reduced markedly when compare with uncoated surface (OD=0.213,0.188 respectively). The biofilm amount formed by Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were reduced by 48.2% and 44.6 % on microtiter plate wells and 62.2% and 47.3% on Foley catheter respectively, after coating those surfaces by biosurfactants.
Conclusions: Biosurfactants have the potential to be used as a preventive strategy to delay the onset of pathogenic biofilm growth on catheters and other materials, thus may lowering the large number of hospital infections without the use of synthetic drugs and chemicals.

Protection Against Toxoplasmosis in Swiss Albino Mice Immunized with Attenuated Toxoplasma Gondi

Nafal J. S. AL-Barwary

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 34-49
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44583

The present study aimed at investigation on developing the immune response against Toxoplasmosis in Swiss Albino mice of the species Mus musculus, BALB/c strain, which were infected, experimentally, with Toxoplasma gondii in order to render the host able to resist any infection with this disease in the future. To achieve this, Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts, collected from placenta of aborted women, they attenuated by irradiation with two absorbed doses of X-Ray irradiation 0.4 and 0.8 KGy.
Mice were injected, intraperitoneally with tissue cysts at a rate of 100 cysts/mice single or double doses. In addition, groups of mice were injected with non-irradiated tissue cysts, as a positive control groups. The criteria used in the present study was humoral immunity, represented by IgM using Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA IgM) to demonstrate the differentiated in IgM level between mice inoculated with X-Ray irradiated tissue cysts and positive control groups, which infected with non-irradiated tissue cysts.
The result shown that the immunization with X-Ray irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts could partially protect the mice from Toxoplasma gondii infection, and produce specific IgM antibody.

Synthesis and Spectroscopic Investigation of Some New Chalcones and their transformation to pyrazoline derivatives

Shakhawan A. Omer; Muhamad S. Ahmad; Farouq E. Hawaiz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-66
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44610

A series of a new chalcone derivatives (2a-i) containing benzyloxy moiety have been synthesized on the basis of base catalyzed claisen –Schmidt condensation in high yields from the reaction of the prepared starting material 3-(4-cholrobenzyloxy) paraldehyde (1)with different substituted acetophenones. The prepared chalcones were treated with hydrazine hydrate according to the Michael addition reaction to obtain new pyrazoline deivatives (3a-i). Finally the structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by using spectral methods such as; FT-IR, 1H-nm, 13C-nmr and 13C- Dept 135 spectra.

Pollution of Tanjero River by Some Heavy Metals Generated from Sewage Wastwater and Industrial Wastewater in Sulaimani District

Nizar Y. Hama-Salh; Nigar A. Aziz; Sabah M. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 67-84
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44614

Tanjero river represents a permanent river located southwest of Sulaimani city about 7km. Qiliasan and Kani-Ban streams confluence to form Tanjero river near Kani-Goma village. Water samples were collected from fifteen sites along the Tanjero river during June 2007 up to January 2008 and analyzed for studying some physico-chemical properties and heavy metals contaminations.
The total hardness values recorded in the studied sites were ranged ( 204.96 – 388.06 )mg/L.The values of (8-33.1) ºC, (1.08-496) NTU were recorded for temperature and turbidity respectively, while the values of (0.64 - 9.19) mg / L, (7.26-8.64) and (362 – 1715) µS.Cm-1 were recorded for dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and specific conductance.
The values of Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr) ,Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), concentration were ranged between, (1.80 to 2.39), (0.2 to 3.31) , (2.13 to 2.55), (0.08 to 3.29) ,and (0.51 to 1.72) mg/L respectively .
The result indicates significant differences (P≥ 0.05) for the sampling events with LSD (Least Significant Differences) value of 0.01 for Co Fe, and Ni, while 0.03 and, 0.06 for Cr and Mn respectively. The Copper(Cu) concentration in all studied water samples was within the acceptable levels which ranged (0.11 to 0.51) mg/L .
Tanjero river and tributaries were polluted with heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr) resulted from the impact of sewage wastewater according to water quality standard EU, 2004; USEPA, 2005; Canada, 2005 and WHO, 2006 and should Construct a plant of treatment for treating sewage wastewater of Sulaimani city before direct discharge to the river and it is quite essential to treat the ground water of the studied area before using .

Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate from Pottery Meal Dishes in Erbil City by using Passive and Active Techniques

Salih O. Haji; Ali H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44620

Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) of type CR-39 has been used in this study as a passive method to measure the radon activity concentration, radon exhalation rate (in terms of area and mass), and effective radon content in the pottery meal dishes of different origins (Germany, England, China, and Iran) in Erbil city. The RAD7 solid state detector has also used as an active method for measuring the radon activity concentrations from the measurement of alpha-particle track density. The results reveal that the highest exhalation rate and effective radium content of 0.690.035 mBq.m-2.h-1 and 0.258±0.013 Bq.Kg-1, respectively, were found in England meal dishes; while the lowest exhalation rate and effective radium content of 0.1960.0098 mBq.m-2.h-1 and 0.106±0.005 Bq.Kg-1, respectively, were found in China meal dishes. It is concluded that the radon exhalation rate from the pottery dishes has significant contribution to the indoor doses that should be taken into account.

Study of Noise pollution at the campus of university of Sulaimani

Parekhan M. Jaff; Hossien Hossieni

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 98-109
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44956

Pollution disturbs the concentration of people, as a result, they will be spending longer time for completing the work than that would be done in a quiet environment,
in addition they feel more tired in the noisy area.
This study was carried out at the University of Sulaimani to show the level of noise pollution in this educational area, by using a digital noise dosimeter with a range of 43-130 dB. The areas chosen for the study were 25 areas in total, including the vacant spaces between halls of study at different floors of 5 colleges, in addition to 3 regions chosen from the field of the campus of the University.
Excel's computer program used for fitting model equations to the obtained experimental data. The noise intensity was above 70 dB in most studied areas, a level which is supposed to be the start of point causing harm to the hearing process of human beings. The source of most of the noises was the crowding and gathering of students both inside the buildings of the colleges (corridors) and in the field of the campus of the university, even after many of them having finished their classes and duties in their colleges.
The buildings were designed decades ago and the number of students and staffs is increasing yearly which makes it impossible to hold such a big number. The results showed that the occupational area for each student in general is less than 2m2 inside the buildings.
As excessive noise affects health of people deleteriously, the establishment of an agency under the name of Kurdistan Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA) is essential for controlling this and similar hazards.

Analytic Solution of Integral Equation Involving Spheroidal Wave Functions of Three Variables.

Qumri H. Hamko; Talhat I. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 130-145
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.45295

In this paper Laplace transform and convolution theorem are used to solve integral equation involving spheroidal wave functions(S.W.F.) of 3-variables of the form
where are the spheroidal wave function:-

which represents the function uniformly converges on (-,), where V,n(x) are eigen values and the coefficients ak(x,n) satisfy the recursion formula and the asterisk over the summation sign indicates that the sum is taken over only even or odd values of (k) according as (n) is even or odd.

Modified Iterative Method for Solving Nonlinear Equation

Rostam K. Saeed; Shno O. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 149-152
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.45297

In this paper, we present new one- and two-steps iterative methods for solving nonlinear equation f(x)=0. It is proved here that the iterative methods converge of order three and six respectively. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance and to show that the iterative methods in this paper give better result than the compared methods.

A Modified Hybrid Partitioned VM-Method for Unconstrained Optimization

Abbas Y. AL-Bayati; Basim A. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 153-170
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.45300

In this paper, we have proposed a modified hybrid partitioned VM-method for minimizing a smooth partially separable nonlinear functions. Numerical results indicate that the proposed (modified hybrid) method with it's two different versions was efficient than the standard BFGS formula of VM-method.

Effect of olive oil and vitamin E in the level of glutathione, lipid peroxides and a number of biochemical criteria of the athletes

Sahib.J. A.; Hussien.M. T.; Burhan.A, M

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.47149

This study was conducted to determine the effect of olive oil and vitamin E to protect against oxidative stress faced the athletes, by measuring the level of glutathione and malondialdehyde and a number of variables biochemical in the blood. (33) soccer player ages (18-23 years) were divided into three groups ( each group 11 player), a control group, olive oil group (given 10 ml of oil for each player before the training) and a vitamin E group (given 400 IU of vitamin E for each player before the training).
The results showed that oxidative stress resulting from the exercise led to significantly higher (P<0.05) in the level of glucose and cholesterol and a significant reduction in the level of glutathione and the absence of significant differences in the level of malondialdehyde compared with the control group after exercise.
The group that taking the players to olive oil led to a significant increase in the level of glutathione and significant decrease in total cholesterol level and the lack of significant differences in the level of malondialdehyde compared with the control group after exercise.
But the intake of vitamin E has led to a significant decrease in the level of glucose and total cholesterol while not lead to significant differences in levels and glutathione, malondialdehyde compared with the control group after exercise
The results of this study reveal the important role of olive oil as a strong anti-oxidant to reduce the harmful effects of free radicals and oxidative stress suffered by soccer players during strong exercise.