Volume 6, Issue 2, Autumn 2011, Page 1-212

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Traditional Enhancement on Spark Ignition Engine Performance

Raaid Rashad Jaseem; Thamir K.Salim; Ibrahim Thamer Nazzal

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43103

An Experimental investigation of the effect of traditional additive on the performance of spark ignition engine ,by use three traditional types, which were used as additive (gasoline additive, Gema and T-max )that were added to pure fuel as a volumetric ratio(1/6, 1/7.1 and1/8) respectively . The tests were done for pure blending fuel at various speed revolution (600-3000 RPM).
The results showed that the engine performance increase with using traditional additive, the brake power increases by (23%,18% ,and 12.6%) at using gasoline blending(T-max, Gema & gasoline additive) respectively as combined with pure fuel, also increasing the brake thermal efficiency, that maximum (bth) for (T-max) approximately about (8%) and minimum for (gasoline additive) about (3.7%).
The study showed that enhancement in the brake specific fuel consumption for (T-max ,Gema, & gasoline additive) by (5%,2%,and 1%) respectively compared for pure fuel. from the results the traditional additive T-max type given best performance for I.C.E.

Effect of Gaps Shapes between System of Hot Tubes in Entrance Region of an Isolated Container

Gazinga F. Abdullah; khawlah A. Mustafa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 15-31
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43104

In this article, a numerical study achieved to show the secondary flow behavior inside narrow gaps having complex shapes. The gaps are forming from a system of hot tubes compacted inside insulated container. All the possibilities of contact studied by local views for different sections along the container. The flexible grid generated by two differential equations in elliptic form which was suitable for all the complex sections presented in this study. Boundary fitted coordinate system used to distribute the grid orthogonally with all surfaces of contact. Niaver-Stocke equations together with the energy equation used to complete the solution after changing its first and second degree of partial derivative terms to computational domain using the Jacobia and metric transformations. Numerical solution completed with a steady flow assumption, for this purpose, a reasonable relaxation factors used to insurance axial slipping along the container benefiting from the parabolic form of energy equation. The local patterns show inequality in the effect and intensity of vorticity depending on the shape and location of the gaps. Vorticity generate from a hot streams, it mixing the heat between the tubes and its intensity agree directly with the gaps narrowing so that it disappear more rapidly compared with other gaps which contact with isolated wall. Finally, the results clear that Vorticity would not cause in enhancing in heat transfer coefficient directly with Rayliah number because its intensity depend on the shapes and locations of the gaps inside the container.

Effect of Zinc Exposure on Protein and Activity of Enzymes of Freshwater Mussel Dreissena Polymorpha

Abid A. Thaker; Ahmad S. Farhan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43105

Dreissena polymorpha mussel were collected from Al-Kadesia lake- Haditha /Al-Anbar Governorate-Iraq, between November 2008 and February 2009. The animals were exposed for 4, 8, and 8 mg zinc/L of water for 8 days. The soft tissue was analyzed for the effect of zinc on total protein components and activity of five enzymes (using colorimetric and /or electrophoretic methods).Zinc was found to cause (a) Change in the intensity of some esterase patterns and increase of total protein with increasing the concentration of zinc in the water (b) Increase in the activity of the enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ) and decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) with increase of zinc concentration. These changes may be useful as an earlier indicator for water pollution with zinc .

Study of Kinetics Properties of Maltase Isoenzyme I in The Urine Of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Sayran S. saleh; Nazar A. Naji; Tagreed U.Mohmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 44-54
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43106

In this research, the kinetics study of one isoenzyme of Maltase, which purified from the urine of diabetes mellitus patients was studied. Maltase isoenzyme was obeyed Michaelis- Mentons eqution. The optimum concentration of their substrate Maltose was (300 mmol/dm3). Their Km values was determined. Isoenzyme of Maltase have shown an optimum pH at (6.5) for phosphate buffer and (7.5) for tri ethanol amine. Maltase isoenzyme obeyed Arrhenius eqution up to 25°C and their Ea and Q10 constant were determined, after measuring the activity of Maltase of urine of diabetes mellitus patients. Isoenzyme of Maltase was separated and purified in previous study from urine of patients of diabetes mellitus

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii among Pregnant Women in Kirkuk / Iraq

Ayla Kh. Ghalib; Iman S. Ahmed; Nazakat F. Othman; Mohammed A. Kadir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43107

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite of many types of tissues, including muscles and intestinal epithelium. The infection may be acquired or congenital, the congenital form is most severe when maternal infection occurs early in pregnancy. Toxoplasma serological tests have been used successfully to determine whether the infection acquired in the recent or more distant past.
The aim of this study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women in Kirkuk city by using different serological tests.
The study was carried out in Kirkuk Hospitals, and Primary Health Care Centers to detect Toxoplasma antibodies among 319 pregnant women aged from less than 18 to more than 35 years old. The period of study was from beginning of November 2003 to end of May 2004.
The study showed that (117) cases out of (319) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii (36.6%) by using LAT, and 54 case positive for IgM- ELISA (16.9%).
The highest rate of Toxoplasma seropositivity was among the age group 19-35 years (38.3%) by LAT and (18.75%) by IgM-ELISA.
The distribution of Toxoplasma seropositivity was higher in housewives than officials and was higher in rural area than urban area by both methods.
The pregnant women who were in contact with animals showed higher rate of seropositivity than those not in contact with animals. There was no relationship between number of abortions and Toxoplasma seropositivity.

Single Vs Combined Therapy in the Treatment of Enuretic Children in Kirkuk District

Lyla H. Mohammed; Dhahir H. Bra; Ziad M. Sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43108

This is a prospective study done in urology polyclinic of Azadi teaching hospital in Kirkuk governorate from 1st of April 2009 to 1st December 2009. The study involved 75 patients complaining from enuresis and does not respond to non pharmacological treatment.
The results of the study showed a higher rate of enuresis in males 45 (60%) than females 30(40%), the peak age incidence 11- 13 years (37.3 %).
Regarding treatment the study showed that children received combination treatment (Imipramine and Oxybutenine) has a better response rate (84.8 %) with fewer relapse rate (15.6 %) after discontinuation of treatment than children received Imipramine alone in which the response rate where (73.3%) and relapse rate (26.7%).
The study recommend combination treatment as a safe and effective treatment for children who didn’t respond to single drug therapy.

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater of Samarra Drugs Factory Using Alum

Ghassan H. Abdullah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43109

The aim of the present study is to treat the industrials wastewater of Samarra drugs factory (SDF) by using oven dried alum sludge in fixed bed column with down flow, in performing the present study actual wastewater of (SDF) is taken to perform experimental work. It also involve studying the effect of bed depth [50, 60 and 70] cm, flow rate [2, 4 and 6] L/hr and particle size [2.8 and 5] mm. The dried alum sludge packed in Pyrex column with 2.8mm diameter and50cm bed depth then increased the bed depth to become 60 and 70cm with different flow rates[2,4and 6]L/hr for every bed depth ,then used 5mm particle size with 70cm bed depth at different flow rate. The samples were tested by using atomic adsorption apparatus type [shimadzu AA-6200]. The results indicated that the best removal percent of the pollutants [Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd and pb], at 2.8mm particle size diameter and 70cm bed depth with 2L/hr flow rate. Also the results indicated that the removal percent is directly proportional with bed depth and inversely proportional with flow rate and particle size, and the removal percent different from element to another.

A Study of Imbibition Phenomenon in Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir

Ali Kamal Darwesh; Abdulhakeem M. Ramadhan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 31-42
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43110

The aim of this paper is to study the imbibition phenomenon in Kirkuk tertiary reservoir (which is a dual-porosity system) and to isolate the individual effects of various parameters on imbibition's recovery. It also addresses the importance of characterizing the imbibition mechanism for analyzing the reservoir performance. A surrounded matrix block by the wetting phase is presented for the purpose of better understanding spontaneous imbibition characteristics. Numerous parametric studies have been performed within the scope of this research. Results showed that the temperature in Kirkuk tertiary reservoir crude oil have a substantial effect on the imbibition recovery mechanism, and the wettability index at the reservoir temperature is 0.24, which indicates that this formation has a very weak water-wet characteristics.

Propose Method to Access Protected Mode of Windows Operating System

Enas F. Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43111

Current day computer systems allow multiple programs to be loaded into memory and to be executed concurrently. This evolution required protection among those various programs. To ensure this protection, operating systems provide protected mode that contains descriptor tables that in its turn, control access to memory segment.
In the Intel Architecture, and more precisely in protected mode, most of the memory management and Interrupt Service Routines are controlled through tables of descriptors. Each descriptor stores information about a single object (e.g. a service routine, a task, a chunk of code or data, whatever) the CPU might need at some time.
In this research, these tables with their contents are studied and given a method to know the contents of these tables and to study the behavior of the O.S, In other words, access to the protected status and work with printing the contents of some special registers that cannot be accessible only within the protected mode (Ring 0).
The program in this research is written in Assembly language (MASM version 7) and tested under Windows Me. The program executed with 32-bit microprocessor, because it contains instruction that can deal with the special registers (GDTR & LDTR) that contains addresses of descriptor tables.

Wound Healing as Well as Fibroblasts and Neutrophil Numbers in a Skin Exposed to Infrared and Electrical Stimulation

Shaheen E. Jaafar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 50-62
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43112

Objective: To investigate wound healing as well as fibroblasts and neutrophil numbers on a limited skin field which is previously exposed to combined Infrared and Electrical stimulation.
Methods: 20 male rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups each one of 10 animals. The experimental group was exposed to combine Infrared (IR) and Electrical Stimulation (ES) at dorsal area for three days respectively, in day four an incision was made in the center of exposed skin then sutured. A biopsies were taken at 24,48,72 hours, week and two weeks after surgery for counting of fibroblasts and neutrophil numbers as well as for histological observation. The same procedure was made for control group without exposing to radiation and stimulation.
Results: There was statistically significant difference in fibroblasts and neutrophil numbers between two groups (p<0.01). The number of these cells were higher in experimental group than control in all periods. Histological observation revealed good orientation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers in experimental group as well as excellent wound healing.
Conclusion: This study suggested that application of IR combined with ES on limited skin field have beneficial effects on fibroblasts and neutrophil numbers of a wound created in same exposed field with good wound healing.

Study of Some Physiological and Biochemical Aspects in The Serum of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Ali M. Sameen; Mohammed Qais Al-Ani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43113

Blood samples were collected from myocardial infarction patients and control groups in Ramady city / Anbar governorate – Iraq. Serum was used to know myocardial infarction effect on the lipid profile, three enzymes activity, proteins and urea . The results were showed the following: (a) Significant increment in cholesterol, triglyceride , LDL and VLDL, while we were observed significant decrement in HLD and urea. (b) Change in the electrophoretic bands of proteins by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (c) Significant increment in enzymes activity of CK , LDH , GOT and protein content in the myocardial infarction patients. (d) C-Reactive Protein was showed that 84% of MI patients gave positive results .

The Kinetic Study of Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Renal Failure Patients

Lutfia M. Hassan; Parween A. Ismahail

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43117

Serum adenosine deaminase levels was measured in patients with acute renal failure and compare them with the results of healthy individuals. Serum adenosine deaminase levels were found to be significantly higher in patient with acute renal failure than in healthy individuals (63±20.1U/L) and (28±9.2IU/L), respectively. The study was carried in optimum pH value (6.5) and optimum temperature 37ć by which enzyme possess highest activity, the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction (ES-Complex) formation was estimated.

Determination of Naproxen in Pharmaceutical preparations by spectrophotometric and flow Injection – activated chemiluminescence methods

Abdul Majeed K. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 90-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43120

This study involves development of a simple spectrophotometric method and a new flow injection–activated chemiluminescence (FIA-Cl) for the determination of Naproxen (Nap) in Pharmaceutical preparations .
Spectrophotometric method was based on the oxidation of the (Nap) with alkaline potassium permanganate, the reaction is followed spectrometrically by measuring the absorbance of (Nap) at 608 nm .
The reaction time of oxidation of (48 min) method is adopted for determining the drug concentration. The calibration graph was linear in the range of (0.4-2.8)µg.ml-1 with a correlation coefficient of (0.9998), detection limit of (0.281) µg.ml-1, molar absorption coefficient is 2.348×104 L/mol.cm and a relative standard deviation RSD% of (3.12-1.32%). The method of FIA-CL was based on the activation of luminol – cobalt – H2O2 chemiluminescence by (Nap). The linearity is (10-45) µg.ml-1 with detection limit of (5.5)µg.ml-1, and correlation coefficient was (0.9999) n=6 and the relative standard deviation was (1.65-1.12%).
The two methods were applied successfully to determine the content of (NaP) in pharmaceutical preparations with a recovery of 98.99%

Geology and geochemistry of the Jurassic carbonate hosted barite deposits, Northeast Zakho, Iraq

Ali M.N. Al-Azzawi; Faraj H. Tobia; Adil A. Al-Kaaby

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 108-119
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43123

Barite deposits located in Marsis locality of about 25km northeast of Zakho City were hosted in Jurassic dolomitic rocks. The barite is extending for about 6km and limited within about 38m thickness of dolomitic rocks. The thickness of the barite veins varies between few centimeters to 2.5m which increases downward. The major mode of occurrence of barite is as vein and cavity-filling. The barite and other minerals of vein and cavity-filling deposits are typical of suite precipitated from low-temperature hydrothermal solutions associated with igneous activity. Carbonate-hosted barite deposits contain 0.237% BaO, 103ppm Zn, and 83 ppm Pb. These rocks are deficit in Fe and F. Most of carbonate rocks are dolomitized, which provide appropriate physical and chemical conditions that permitted the passage of mineral-bearing fluids. These deposits are formed in carbonate platform setting and commonly developed in foreland thrust belt.

Investigation of Some Elements In nP2- Configuration by Zeeman Effect

Salar Z. Mohammad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43154

Calculation of the relativistic and diamagnetic corrections of the gJ-factors have been performed in order to find evidence of configuration interaction in 3P- configuration elements. The comparison between the experimental and calculated gJ-factors of the ground configuration showed no evidence of configuration in C, Si and Ge. In Sn, however, there is an indication that configuration interaction is present. In Pb evidence of configuration interaction was found.

Generalization of the radial nuclear two-body potentials and new derivation to find their matrix elements

Aziz H. Fatah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 129-141
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43155

The text of this paper covers a generalization of the radial two-body nuclear potentials and then derivation of a new formula to evaluate their matrix element. A new formula was derived and applied successfully to calculate the single-particle matrix elements of the spin-isospin dependent and spin-isospin independent potentials by using a mathematica code.

Two - mirror resonator as a high resolution length –sensing interferometer

Suran D. Yaseen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 142-154
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43156

Same basic properties of resonators from a wave – optical and from a ray resonator were investigated. These properties play a pivoted role in determining both the spectral properties of optical resonators and the behavior of rays inside such resonators. In this investigation, the phase was used as a unifying concept. Furthermore the basic expressions for paraxial two mirror resonators were considered a long with a special case where the phase assumes a rational value=2  k N. In this case a paraxial two-mirror resonator has, at the same time, a highly degenerate eign frequency spectrum and supports closed periodic orbits that repeat after N round trips. Outside the paraxial limit, these periodic orbits are still useful they allow us to make general statements about the behavior of the phase for non paraxial eign modes. Also extend the expressions for the paraxial two-mirror resonator so that can be used to analyse paraxial resonators with astigmatic eign modes. Also, I suggest a possible application of a degenerate two-mirror resonator as a high- resolution length- sensing interferometer. I discuss its principle of operation and point out some limitations.

Effect of carbon wt% on the iron x-ray diffraction pattern and the volume of iron unit cell.

Ali I. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 155-165
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43158

From standard x-ray diffraction chart for iron noticed that the effect of increasing in carbon wt% are accompanied with the change in the volume of the iron unit cell, after diffusion of carbon atoms it takes interstitial position between irons atoms, this will increase the edge length of the unit cell by follow the relationship (Δ c =0.11285 ×C wt%), a permanent strain happens with the change in the mean of the lattice spacing.
This relation between carbon wt% and the volume of iron unit cell can be use to predict the carbon which is present in the iron alloy. The diffraction pattern act as an empirical fingerprint for carbon % and their phases.

On Generalized Some Kind of Contra Homeomorphism Functions and Some relations among Them in Intuitionistic Topological Spaces

Suham M. Ali; Younus J. Yaseen; Amal A.F

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 166-183
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43159

In this paper, we introduce the definition of contra homeomorphism functions, contra k-homeomorphism functions, contra strongly k-homeomorphism functions and contra S*-k- homeomorphism functions in intuitionistic topological spaces where k= {semi, α , per , β }, and we give propositions to show the relations among them, some counter examples are given for not implications. We give also a diagram to illustrate these relations.

The Stability Analysis of the Shimizu–Morioka

Rizgar H. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 184-200
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43161

In this work, we study new system with a rich structure (the Shimizu-Morioka system), which is exhibiting the Lorenz-like dynamics.
Where the dot denotes the system obtained a Hopf bifurcation (Supercritical and subcritical) for some values of . For the analysis we use the center manifold and normal form theorem. A computer algebra system using Maple (version 9) was used to derive all the formulas and verifying the results presented in this work [Char, David].

A New Non Quadratic Algorithm for Solving Non-Linear Optimization Problems

Adham A. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 201-212
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43163

This paper proposes a new algorithm for non-linear optimization to modify and develop the conjugate gradient (CG) methods and to obtain a strong global convergence. This algorithm is derived and evaluated numerically against the standard (P/R and H/S)-CG algorithms and T/S algorithm using more than (20) standard well-known test functions. The numerical results show that, Non –quadratic models are very beneficial in most of the problems especially when the dimensionality of the problem increases.