Volume 5, Issue 2, Autumn 2010, Page 1-138

Effect of Externally Bonded Strips of Polymer Fiber (frp) on the Shear Strength of R.C Beam

Bakhtiar A. Muhaiddin; Bayar J. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41411

This research includes the findings of a workable study investigation for topic of externally strengthening by polymer fiber strips (FRP) of shear span and its impact on the behavior of reinforced concrete beams. The study was carried out by casting (18) concrete beams (1000mm) in length, (150mm) in width and (200mm) in height reinforced by longitudinal steel bars to avoid flexure failure. Two of these beams were considered as controlling beams where its shear span was left without external wrapping by fiber strips. The remaining beams were divided into tow groups where its shear span was wrapped from the bottom and the sides by glass fiber (GFRP) or carbon fiber (CFRP) at (90˚) angle for the first group and (45˚) angle for the second. After these beams were tested the result showed that externally strengthening by polymer fiber strips increases shear strength of the wrapped beams compared to the controlling beams (unwrapped) at ratios based on type of fibers strips, strips thickness and declination. The increase has reached (10% - 28%) for wrapped beams at an angle of (90˚) and (20% - 44%) for wrapped beams at an angle of (45˚). Externally strengthening also increases the absorption energy as well as reducing wrapped beams, ductility compared to controlling beams (unwrapped) with (12% - 23%) for the wrapped beams at an angle of (90˚) and (14% - 37%) for the wrapped beams at an angle of (45˚). .

Theoretical study of a Rotary Regenerator in a Thermal Power Plant

Wadhah H. Abdul-Razaq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 20-40
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41419

In this research, the rotary regenerator is analyzed by solving government differential equations of heat transfer in the regenerator analytically and comparing the results with the designed data in order to study the performance of the rotary regenerator. In solving these equations, several assumptions have been considered; the most important are the constant temperature for both fluids at the inlet and the unchangeability of mass flow for each with the negligible of longitudinal heat transfer in flow direction. The results have shown good approach to the designed data. The percentage of error of the temperature of air combustion is (3%) and for flue gas temperature (4%). So, it can be said that this model can be used for studying the effective parameters on the work of the regenerator in order to reach the best performance of the regenerator.

Oocyte development in liza abu

Gazwa. D. Al-Nakeeb; Mukhtar. Kh. Haba

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 53-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41425

Khishni fish Liza abu were collected from Tigris river to study oocyte development in this fish .Present study showed that the oogenesis process include seven stages divided according to cell size,chromatin matter and vitellogenesis .The first stage represent as Oogonia,the second is Early oocyte,the third is Multinucleated stage,then Yolk nucleus stage (indicator to beginning of vitillogenesis),followed by primary and secondary stages and lastly Maturation stage

Study the Effect of Irradiation by Gamma-Ray on the Optical Properties of the Thin Films

Neraan F. Abd-Aljabaar; Kasim H. Mahmood; Abdulmajed E. Ibrahim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 54-64
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41430

In this research the effect of irradiation on the optical properties of the pure films CdO was studied prepared of the subjected to Gamma –Ray with energy (0.662MeV ) for (5,10)min and (24)hours .Optical properties results , irradiation Gamma–Ray leads to decrease in energy gap value. It turns out that Gamma–Ray had apronoced effect on the optical proportion of CdO films.

Study the Effect of X-Ray on BJT Transistor at Different Periods of Time

Walla M. Mohammad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41433

In this research it has been studied the influence of X-Ray on the BJT (bipolar junction transistor ) NPN type NO 2N3035 for (5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40) min intervals . the (ICE ,VCE) and (IB-VBE ) characteristics have been studied for every irradiation time to in addition to study the change in (VB – β ) values according to the irradiation times . Also the transistor used as an amplifier which has the reverse feedback to study the irradiation effect on the amplification factor (Aƒ) . it is found that the values of (VCE,IC) and (VB, β) have been decreased as the irradiation times decreased . the transistor showed a littlie changes of (Aƒ) when the reverse feedback used and the output signal suffering no any distortion .

The Relationship between Slope and Luminosity

Mohsen H. Ali AL-Khafajy

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 76-85
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41438

In this study, a sample of galaxies has been adopted. It consists of 112 elliptical galaxies, among them were 56 dwarf elliptical galaxies, which belong to virgo cluster, 37 normal galaxies and 19 bright galaxies. Also, surface brightness profiles fitted for these galaxies with sersic model (r1/n-model). The linear relation between effective surface brightness and logarithm effective radius log re(kpc) have been calculated, and found, the slope for dwarf elliptical galaxies is 1.89, 2.8 for normal elliptical galaxies and 2.8 for bright galaxies. Also, The linear relation between slope for these type from galaxies and average absolute magntude have been calculated, and found . It is found that rms scatter of this relation is 0.2 mag.

Estimation of Some Genetic Parmeters in Maize

Fakhradeen A.Q. Sedeeq; mona A. Yousef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 86-99
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41445

Nine inbred lines of maize (DK, SH, R153, ZP, OH40, W13R, IK58, Agr183 and IK8) were concluded in this study. Factorial mating design that suggested by Comstock &Robinson (1948 &1952) was used to perform single crosses among male lines (IK58, Agr183 and IK8) and female lines (DK, SH, R153, ZP, OH40 and W13R).
The genotypes ( 9 inbred lines and 18 hybrids) were planted at The fields of College of Agriculture at Tikrit University by using randomized complete block design with three replications to estimate some genetic parameters: Phenotypic Variance components (Additive, Dominance and Environmental) also broad and narrow sense heritability, degree of dominance and expected genetic advance.
The results showed that the dominance variance was more than additive one for most studied characters, where as the narrow sense heritability values were ranged from (3.12%) for plant height (as male) and (75.56%) for the same trait (as female). Average degree of dominance was exceeded one for most studied characters while values of expected genetic advance low to mederate and high for all characters.
Key words: Zea mays, inbred lines, Factorial design mating.

Toxic Effect of Some Chemical Compounds of Sap and Heartwood of Some Forest Trees on Termite

Nazar M. Al – Mallah; Shahin A. Mustafa; Waleed A. Qasseer

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 100-111
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41465

The results of the toxic effect study of phenols, terpens, alkaloides, oils and water extracts for both sapwood and heartwood of Platanus orientalis L. , Populus nigra L., Cupressus sempervirens L , Pinus brutia Ten., Salix acomphylla Boiss. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. On termite workers showed a significant toxicity variation according to the type of compound, wood kind and tree species. The extractions of phenols, terpens oils and water of both sap and heartwood of Pinus brutia were more toxic to termite than the other compounds. The results of the fractional extractions for both sapwood and heartwood for pine wood were a high mortality on termite workers with the general averages 57.1, 70.8 % respectively. Whereas, the toxicity indicator values were 100 % for extractions of phenols, terpens and aqueous fraction for both sapwood and heartwood of pine wood, respectively. The alkaloids extract of heartwood of Pinus brutia and Platanus orientalis and sapwood of Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed high toxicity to termite workers and their LC50 values reached 0.040, 0.045, and 0.045 respectively.

Susceptibility of Bread Wheat Cultivars to Wheat Gall Nematode and A Study Some of the Gene Action of Infection Percentage

Jasim .M.A.ALJobouri; Ahmed.H.A. ALJobouri

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 112-121
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41468

Screening of 15 wheat cultivars against wheat gall nematode Anguina tirtici con firmed that sabebage cultivar immune to this pest ,while different levels of Susceptibility was recorded on the other 14 cultivates .F1 crosses were showed significantly positive ,heterosis for its Nematodes sensitivity and no any one negative . Combining ability analysis showed that saberbeg variety gave the superiority of new recombination by the breeding programs like that of cross (Saberbeg X Abu-graib3) showed less sensitivity for wheat nematodes the additive gene action was more effective from dominance because the average degree of dominance was less from one .That broad and narrow sense heritability was high and equal (0.98)and (0.63) respectively; which can be a successful selective for plant breeding in early generation .

Detection of Gene Action for Yield and Its Components in Maize Using Diallel Cross

K. M. Dawod; A. S. A. Mohamed; Kh. Kh. Al-Guboury

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 122-137
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41475

Half diallel crosses (excluded reciprocal) carried out among the pure lines of maize Agr183, DK, W13R, W17, OH40, IK58, IK8, ZP and SH. Genotypes were planted using RCBDesign with 3 replications, and data collected for plant height, upper ear height, number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, 300 grain weight and grain yield per plant, and statistical analysis conducted to study general and specific combining abilities, gene action and some genetic parameters. The results showed significant mean square for genotypes, general and specific combining ability for all characters. The pure lines W13R, W17, IK58, IK8 and ZP and hybrids W17 x OH40, W17 x IK58 and IK58 x SH shown as a good general and specific combinors for a larger number of characters respectively. The dominance gene action appeared more important than additive one in controlling the inheritance of all studied characters, and the average degree of dominance exceeded one for all characters indicated the presence of over dominance. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 72.13% for number of rows per ear to 99.67% for grain yield per plant, and narrow sense heritability shown moderate for 300 grain weight (22.88%) and low for remainder characters, while expected genetic advance as percent of character mean appeared low for all characters (from 0.199% for number of rows per ear to 8.603% for number of grains per row.

Sepsis in Neonatology Unit of Kirkuk Pediatric Hospital

Ahmed H. Al-Anee; Ziad M. Sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41517

This is a retrospective study reviewed all neonates who were proved to have sepsis by positive blood culture and admitted to the neonatal unit of Kirkuk pediatric hospital from June 1, 2005 to May 31, 2006. Data regarding gestational age, gender, causative microorganisms, drug sensitivity, time of presentation and outcome were collected and analyzed. The result of the study showed higher frequency of neonatal sepsis in premature neonates 12.41% in premature newborns VS. 4.41 % in fullterm neonates). No significant statistical differences were found in outcome between early and late neonatal sepsis. Also it was found that gender had no significant effect in the frequency of neonatal sepsis. Most common causative microorganism for both early and late neonatal sepsis found to be Klebsiella followed by E Coli. Mortality rate was (50.64 %) Most dead infants had early neonatal sepsis (34.18%), while only (16.46%) died from late neonatal sepsis.

Epidemiological study of hypertensive cases among teaching staffs in kirkuk university

Salah M. Salih Hassan; Mohammed M. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 8-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41530

This is a Cross-Sectional study done in Kirkuk city among teaching staff of Kirkuk University for the prevalence of hypertension among them. About 136 subjects selected randomly within all colleges (6 Colleges) during the period 1 January to 31 March 2009. The results of the study found that 22(16,2%) subject were hypertensive that discovered accidentally, about 22,5% of sample study were systolic hypertensive and 18,9% of them were diastolic hypertensive , Among the male subject . The prevalence of hypertension was increased as age and body mass index of the subject increased. About 20,7% male subjects were smoker. The study recommended that there is great need for the teaching staff to reduce their weight, prohibited smoking and to check their blood pressure routinely and periodically.

Intraplate Earthquakes in Iraqi Western Desert

Emad A.M. Al-Heety

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 31-49
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41568

The seismicity of Iraqi western desert was analyzed. During the period from 1900 to 2004, there occurred about 40 events with magnitude Mw ≥ 3.0.The area was inactive before 1970.This may be attributed to quietness of the area and / or to missing of data and the poor coverage for the local and regional seismic stations. The relation between earthquake magnitude Mw and cumulative frequency Nc for the studied area is Log Nc = 3.51 – 0.54 Mw .The spatial epicentral distribution in western desert shows that there are two seismic zone , Zone (I) and Zone (II). Most events were located in and around the Rutbah uplift ( Zone II). The focal depth of most events in the area belongs to the crust. In order to understand the cause of intraplate earthquakes in the western desert, the idea of intraplate seismicity occurs in vicinity of '' stress concentrators" within preexisting zones of weakness is considered. These concentrators are buried intrusions and intersecting faults. It is found that there is a causal association between the seismicity of western desert and the buried intrusions and fault intersections. A better understanding of the seismicity of western desert requires detailed information about stress and strain within the area, crustal structure, continuous geodetic measurements, heat flow data and detailed microearthquakes monitoring.

Palynological Study of Ora and the Upper Part of Kaista Formation in Zakho area, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Govand H. Sherwani; Srood F. Naqishbandi; Dana N. Redha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 50-73
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41580

Palynological investigations of Ora Formation and the upper part of Kaista Formation (Late Devonian – Early Carboniferous) in the Northern Thrust Zone were conducted in Kiasta exposures about 2km away to the north west of Kaista village Zakho District, Northern Iraq. The upper part of Kaista Formation is mainly composed of dolomitic limestone interbedded in the lower part with black shale, fine sandstone, and sometimes with lime mudstone, but in the upper part the facies is dominantly fossiliferous limestone. Ora Formation is composed of black shale and silty shales interbedded with siltstones and thin fossiliferous limestone. Based on available organic matter, ( phytoclasts, amorphous organic matters, and palynomorphs). Kaista section divided into five different palynofacies (PF1, PF2, PF3, PF4 and PF5). The detailed palynological study in Kaista section, having both Ora and Kaista Formations, enabled their division into five palynozones (P.Z1, P.Z2, P.Z3, P.Z4 and P.Z5). The basic index for this division is the miospores studied in the sum of 15 samples. The palynological analysis has confirmed the previously determined age of the studied formations, as (Late Devonian – Early Carboniferous) for the Kaista Formation and Early (Strunian- Late Tournaisian) for Ora Formation. The palynomorphs and the organic matters indicate that the depositional environment of Ora Formation is shallow marine to near shore. However, the depositional environment of the Kaista Formation was not established owing to scarcity of diagnostic palynomorphs.

Some neotectonic notes on the selected topographic expressions between shari and tharthar lakes

Duraid B. Deikran

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 74-87
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41635

The goal of this paper is to clarify type, intensity and rate of movements, of topographically expressed features, by evaluation of surface and subsurface data through three cross sections in central part of Iraq. This was attained conveniently by comparing the selected contacts, within neotectonic time, with their original heights represented by global sea level heights and with contemporary topography. The chosen sea levels are assumed to be the original position of the undisturbed contacts. The present study assumed that any departure from the unique sea level could be caused by vertical movement (uplift or subsidence).
Four topographically expressed features are included within three cross sections, each of them has specific stratigraphic boundary and unique sea level. These are: topographically expressed fetures of Samarra and Salahaldeen structures beside Shari and Tharthar Lakes. In addition, the sections includes: contemporary topography and the contacts of ; Middle/Late Miocene, Late Miocene/ Pliocene and Pliocene/Pleistocene, derived from geophysical depth maps with their associated global sea level. The first contact represents phase of tectonic stability but the other two are not , they are involved in this study to clarify and to be more close to the neotectoic events.

Determination of Natural Isotope and Radionuclide of Out Door High Dose Rate in Garmik Area-kurdistan Region NE-Iraq.

Kamal H. Kareem; Kamal O. Abdullah; Adel M. Hussein

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 88-105
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41639

Radioactive materials, containing high-count rate, are found in some areas in the world which have worldwide use as construction and facing material. The radiation doses, in the Garmik area, are about 268.6 nGy h-1, which are density population by residents of ten of villages and two towns.
The outdoor terrestrial gamma-ray background in some region of Garmik area was studied in order to determine the absorbed gamma dose rates of the soils and rocks. Gamma ray spectra have been recorded using the advance nuclear measurement system (digital spectroscopy analyzer DSA with NaI (TI) detector). This method is very suitable for measuring outdoor gamma radiation dose because the gamma count and human -radiation exposure will not be lost by the method by which the whole radiation exposure has been determined. A new equation has been formulated for this method. The total dose rates inside Sulaimani city was (42.873) nGy h-1 considered as a normal local outdoor dose rate (background).
The average values of outdoor dose rates of the studied samples, in Tatan, Hangazhal and Garmik areas have been found to be (226.1005, 257.477,322.541) nGy h-1 respectively. These values are nearly 6 times grater than the normal local outdoor dose rate of the background of Northeastern Iraq. The dose rate of each radioactive elements or isotopes have been determined for each spectrum of each mentioned area which are equal to 8.4554, 67.0995, 66.9057, 50.6143 nGy h-1 for Sulaimani city, Tatan, Hangazhal and Garmik respectively. The total rate of radionuclide is about 22.76% of total outdoor dose rate.

Modified Algorithm for Scheduling Problem

Ayad M. Ramadan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 106-114
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41647

The problem of scheduling n jobs on a single machine is considered, where the jobs are divided into two classes and a machine set up is necessary between jobs of different classes. Jobs i (i= 1,…, n) becomes available for processing at time zero, requires a positive processing time . Disjoint subsets N1 and N2 define the partition of jobs into two classes. If two jobs in the same class are sequenced in adjacent positions, then no set up time between these jobs in necessary. We address the bicriterion (multi objective) scheduling problem, the two criteria are the minimization of flow time ( ) and the minimization maximum Tardiness ( ). We characterized the set of all efficient points and the optimal solution. A modified algorithm presented to find efficient solutions for the problem with set up times. A relation found between number of efficient solutions and range of ‘tardiness of shortest processing time ( ), tardiness of early due date ( )’. This algorithm treats with a case that the set up time in rule is in increasing order. A counter example presented to show that the algorithm will fail if the set up time in rule is in decreasing order. Our task is to present the decision makers with all possible solutions and let them make the final selection. The decision maker has two objectives in mind ( ) , ( ) and some solutions (efficient), we will choose the best one from the efficient solutions depending on his experiences.

An Application of Lagrange Multiplier for integer Linear Programming in production- Transportation with Flexible Transportation Cost

Abdul Rahim K.Rahi and Suzan S. Haydar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 115-125
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41652

The Transportation problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. Although it can be solving as a linear programming problem. Linear programming makes use of the simplex method, an algorithm invented to solve a linear program by progressing from one extreme point of the feasible polyhedron to an adjacent one. The algorithm contains tactics like pricing and pivoting. For a transportation problem, a simplified version of the regular simplex method can be used, known as the transportation simplex method.
In this paper will discuss the functionality of both of these algorithms, and compared their optimized values with non-linear method called the Lagrange Multiplier Method. Lagrange Multiplier is an algorithm that uses different mechanisms to choose the best optimal solutions. This method based on transforming the linear structure transportation problem into the nonlinear structure and solved it directly, by the techniques. The objective of the study was to find out how these algorithms behave in terms of accuracy and speed when a large-scale problem is being solved.

Approximate Solution for the System of Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equations of the Second Kind by Weighted Residual Methods

Rostam K. Saeed; Chinar S. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 126-138
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41656

In this paper, three types of weighted residual methods (Collocation, Subdomain, and Galerkin methods) are presented for finding an approximate (sometimes exact) solution of the system of non-linear Volterra integral equations of the second kind (VIEK2). We showed the efficiency of the prescribed methods by solving some numerical examples.

Experimental Study in Direct Shear Strength of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Husain M. Husain; Moayad M. Kasim; Esam M. Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 17-31
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.47162

Concrete members like brackets, corbels and ledger beams may fail in direct shear. Such failure can be brittle and sudden (without warning). Steel fibers restrain cracking, increase tensile strength and enhance the ductility and energy absorption characteristics.
This study presents an experimental investigation into the behavior of connections subjected to direct shear by testing push-off specimens. The main variables to be studied were fiber percentage, and the shear reinforcement ratio crossing the shear plane at right angles. Measurements such as slip, lateral separation, strains in both the parallel and the shear reinforcements and strain in the concrete were recorded throughout the test.The experimental results show that the fiber reinforcement increases shear strength and this fiber and stirrup reinforcements have an effective role within limited ratios.