Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2010, Page 1-113

Analytical Study about the Behavior of Prestressed Composite Steel Beams

Saad F. Salih Miged

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41081

prestressing is the deliberate creation of permanent internal stresses in a structure or a system in order to improve it’s performance under service loads. Such stresses are designed to counter act those induced by external loading. The application of prestressed concrete is widely used and is in away a natural result. Concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension. Prestressing the concrete would produce compressive stresses which will counteract tensile stresses induced by external loading, thus producing a crack-free material during service-steel is strong in both compression and tension. The benefits of prestressing composite steel beam are to increase the elastic strength, to reduce deflection with limited member depth, to reduce steel weight, to increase ductility by redistribution of internal stresses, and to improve fatique strength of a structural detail by reducing the tensile stress range.
Presteressing mechanisms and bending behaviour of prestressed steel beam are very important to fully utilize the member section. The analysis equations for the elastic state and fully plastic state are developed based on equilibrium of forces and compatibility of deformation. The comparison between bounded and unbounded tendons shows that the bond of the tendons in prestressed steel beams has small effect in improving their behavior. Beams with draped tendons are compared with beams with straight tendons. Draping the tendons reduce the shear stresses in the beam. The magnitude of the reduced shear stresses depends on the depth of the beam and the tendon profile.

Amplitude Control of Single Phase Capacitor Motor

Fatin.N. Barsoum

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 20-36
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41083

The method is proposed to study the performance of single-phase capacitor motor with amplitude control. This is clearly shown by controlling the speed of the motor with varying the applied voltage to the control voltage while the excitation voltage is constant. The obtained results show the validity of the method and the accuracy of the equations derived in this work

Forced Convection about a Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium

Ahmed H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 37-52
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41084

Theoretical and experimental study was carried out of heat transfer by forced convection from the cylinder in cross flow embedded in a saturated porous media. the theoretical part of the work includes solving the standard energy transport equation in porous media regions by FLUENT. there are maximum temperature and minimum velocity at the rear of cylinder but minimum temperature and maximum velocity at the front of cylinder . the stagnant area at and the separation at .. The experimental part of this work included the construction of an experimental model composed of cast iron cylinder with a (18 mm) inner diameter and (20mm) outer diameter with a length of(200mm) heated internally by an electrical heater. The cylinder was embedded in a packing of glass ball with diameter (12mm) placed in across flow wind tunnel. The experimental results revealed that the average heat transfer increased when the Peclets number and Reynolds number increased for steady state condition. The relationship between Na&Re and Na&Pe for experimental gives us Nu=alnRe-b and Nu=2Pe-2.666 respectively when a and b are constants depending on Re and Q for (Q in watt) and , .

Evaluation of Different Serologic Laboratory Tests Used For Diagnosis of Brucella Antibodies among Patients in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City

Ali H. Mohammad Ameen; Hadi H. Mohammad Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 53-60
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41085

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, endemic in Iraq, and transmitted through dairy products. Several serological tests have already been used for Brucella infection diagnosis. Sera from a total 182 suspected patients having brucellosis attended Azadi General Hospital during the period between June – September 2009 had been screened by different serological tests, Rose Bengal agglutination test, B.abortus antigen agglutination test, B.melitensis antigen agglutination test as well as ELISA IgM, IgG have been used in this investigation to determine the type of infection and to evaluate the best serologic tests . By comparing the results obtained from these serologic tests and by using statistical methods (PPV, NPV and F-measure) it was found that the Rose Bengal test is most useful and more sensitive than other two tests B.abortus antigen test and B.melitensis antigen test. There have been no significant differences between the rate of acute and chronic infection. The result also suggested that the male and female have the same susceptibility for infection with Brucella.

A study on the main sewage channel in Erbil city

Umran H.K.Bapeer

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41086

Studying the water quality of Erbil waste water, and how much it match with the world criteria to irrigation purpose, during Spring 2007 to Winter 2008 , ten stations within and along the city wastewater channel were chosen , the first formation (Qalaa in the city centre) till the last gathering station to form the main channel in the southern west of the city (Areb qand).Important measurements were taking in consideration :T. coliform, TP, TN, BOD5, COD and TSS .The main results were :
* The seasonal values followed certain rhythm which was; Summer > Spring > Winter .
* Only for the reason of high number of T. cliform in the studies season except the winter season which was in low value, the wastewater in the main channel match to irrigation purpose only in Winter season.

A Study of Papanicolaou Smear Diagnoses in

Sarween Z. Hamad Ameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 76-92
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41096

This study aimed to estimate and analyze the prevalence of different normal, benign and abnormal cellular changes based on cytological diagnosis.
The study included 236 women undergoing cytological exams in obstetric and pediatric hospital in Hawler city. It revealed 4(1.6%) cases of various grades of CIN, 5(2.1%) cases of atypical squamous cells (ASC), 67(28.3%) cases of reactive cellular changes (RCC) and 71(30%) cases of squamous metaplasia. The relation of these conditions to the development of cervical cancer is discussed.
Furthermore, different cervical and vaginal infections were identified by cytological means, including 21(8.8%) cases of Gardnerella vaginalis, 11(4.6%) cases of Candida, 9(3.8) cases of Trichomonas vaginalis, 2(0.8%) cases of viral infection, and 45(19%) cases of nonspecific infection.In some cases more than one lesion is present in the same smear.

Optical properties of polymer composite PS-PC

Dana A. Tahir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 93-103
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41097

The optical properties of polymer composite polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC-PS) films prepared by casting technique were studied in the visible and ultraviolent wavelength regions. It was found that the optical absorption is due to direct allowed transitions for pure and composite polymer films, while the energy gaps and the width of the tail localized states of the composite was lied in the mid values of the pure samples. The optical constants refractive index , extinction coefficient , the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric constant have been also calculated. The dielectric constant and refractive index become more stable for composite sample.

A New Technique to Compute Complex Roots

Sasan A. Muheadden

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 104-113
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41098

In this paper we modified Newton – Raphson and Secant methods to Complex form, then from that we get new iterative formula to them, named Newton (Secant) real iteration formula and Newton (Secant) imaginary iteration formula, real iteration used to find real roots while imaginary iteration one will be used to find complex roots of non- linear equations such as ( ). To find real roots, we start with a real initial point in real iteration getting a sequence of real numbers, to find complex roots start with a complex initial point in complex formula getting a sequence of complex numbers, also we write a new algorithm for this technique and write the program by using Matlab application system version 7.8 for this new method such that it will determine the real roots when we enter the initial real point but when we enter the initial complex point it will determine the complex roots.

Scour in Stone Beds Downstream Weirs and Compound Gates

Ahmad A. Ahmed; Bahzad M. Ali; Mwafaq Y. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41101

In the present investigation, a laboratory study of scour characteristics downstream weirs, compound gates has been conducted. The study included the measurement of maximum scour depth and the length of scour hole downstream these structures. Also, the effects of structure height, under sluice opening height, discharge variation and the diameter of bed material on the depth and length of scour hole. Two hundred and thirty four experiments were conducted in a concrete laboratory channel. Three sizes of crushed aggregate in range of (1.43-2.21)cm and three of gate height 15, 20 and 30cm were tested . Three heights of gate openings 1, 2 and 3cm were also tested. Experimental Results of this study showed a good direct relationships between relative scour depth (Ds/D50) and relative scour length (Ls/D50) with densimetric Froude number (Fro) for weirs and compound gates. It was also shown that (Ds/D50) and (Ls/D50) have good relationships with the relative discharge (qu/qd) for all cases and bed materials of compound gates. Two empirical relationships were obtained to estimated (Ds/D50) and (Ls/D50) in terms of (Fro) and relative water surface fall (ΔHw/P) for weirs with high determination coefficients. Another two empirical relationships were obtained to estimated (Ds/D50) and (Ls/D50) in terms of (Fro) , relative water surface fall (ΔHt/P) , relative opening height (h0/ΔHt) and relative discharge (qu/qd) for compound gates with high determination coefficients.

Experimental study on Natural Convection heat transfer from an array of heated Cylinders located

Omed A.Abbass; Muhand A. Al dhahir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 27-46
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41103

An experimental study on free convection heat transfer from a horizontal array consists of three cylinders heated under the condition of constant surface temperature was carried out. The study included clarifying the effect of separation distance between the cylinders and the distance that separate them from a floor, on the natural convection heat transfer from the array.
The study showed that the ability of the cylinders to transmit heat with free convection is a function to separation distances between the cylinders also the distance between the cylinders and the floor, as well as Rayligh number, this ability is decrease too much when the separation distance from the floor and the neighborhood cylinder is small, the reduction in heat transfer for the center cylinder was (40%) in comparison with single cylinder test at vertical and horizontal separation distance of (1/8), the thermal performance for both cylinders may be got better as the separation distance increase, where the maximum enhancement in heat transfer for the center cylinder was recorded as (11%) in comparison with single cylinder test at vertical separation distance of (1) and horizontal separation distance of (3/4).
The experimental results showed that the enhancement in heat transfer increases as the separation distance from the floor being larger, and the maximum heat transfer at small heights may be at high Rayligh numbers, where for high separation distances, the maximum relative enhancement may be observed at low Rayligh numbers.

Study The Radiatory Pollution in Selected Soils of Kirkuk Governorate

Shaker M. AL-Jobori; Farid M. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 47-66
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41128

18 samples of soil were collected from selected places in Al¬-Tamim governorate and these samples were measured by using Gamma ray spectrum system represented by Germanium high purity (HPGe) with energy resolution 2.2 KeV at the energy 1332 KeV of Co60. The system was attached to the computer where the spectrum was collected and analyzed by the PCA program which is a comprehensive program for spectral and quantity analysis of Gamma ray. The radiatary activity of radiating nuclides resulting from the chain of U238,U235, K40 and Cs137 were calculated .
The ratios Th234 /Ra226, was found (0.828 – 0.969), Th234 /Pa234m, was found to be (0.805 – 0.954).The value of R which represents U235/ U238 was counted and it ranged between (0.00562-0.00602) for the samples of polluted soils and (0.0064-0.0071) for

Effect of X-Ray on the properties of AlGaAs semiconductor Laser

Wlla Mahfooth Mohammed Ameen; Sabri Jasem Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41129

In this research effect caused by X-Ray on the properties of AlGaAs laser has been carried auto at different times ,there properties include the I-V and I-P at 180oC. It is noted that these properties has change when the laser is exposed to X-ray radiation also the stimulated emission is completely eliminated at moderate exposure times, but at longer exposure times (45-90)min the laser break down and both stimulated and spontaneous emission were completely disappear. Creased with the disappearing of each at the catalytic spontaneous resurrections.

The Study of the Properties of Optical Fiber Made Of Doped Silica

Abdullsttar A. Aesa; Muhammed A. Hussein; Najla O. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 77-91
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41130

This study aims at designing optic fibers out of the doped silica and studying the properties of the manufactured optic fibers and employing them in different practical processes . Three types of doped silica will be chosen :
(13.5 m / 0 GeO2, 86.5 m / 0 SiO2)
( 9.1 m / 0 GeO2,7.7m/0B2O3, 83.2 m / 0 SiO2)
( 4.03 m / 0 GeO2, 9.7m/0B2O3, 86.27m / 0 SiO2)
By using sellmeire equation the refraction index will be calculated for the materials used in manufacturing optic fibers. The study shows that the materials (13.5 m / 0 GeO2, 86.5 m / 0 SiO2) has the highest index of refraction among the other materials by using special equation, the properties of optic fibers has been examined ( the numerical aperture , the critical angle ,…) as a function of wave length. The result shows that the core optic fiber has the doped silica (13.5 m / 0 GeO2, 86.5 m / 0 SiO2) while the clad has the material (9.1 m / 0 GeO2,7.7m/0B2O3, 83.2 m / 0 SiO2) this should be of suitable properties to act as a receiving fiber. The fiber of the core materials (13.5 m / 0 GeO2, 86.5 m / 0 SiO2) while the glade has the materials (4.03 m / 0 GeO2, 9.7m/0B2O3, 86.27m / 0 SiO2) have properties which enabled it to act as a sending fiber with various wave length.

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cutting on Forage and Its Components of Millet

Omar K. Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 101-117
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41131

This investigation was conducted for two successive years (2000 and 2001) in the experimental field of Qlyasan research station-college of Agriculture-University of Sulaimani, to study the effect of Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 20 and 40 kgN/ha) and two cutting treatments (one cut and two cut) on the characters of plant height, No. of tillers/plant, Green and dry leaf%, Green and dry stem %, dry matter%, green and dry weight/plant, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and green and dry forage yield for proso millet.
Results of combined analysis for two years indicated the presence of significant effect of Nitrogen fertilizer on plant height and green forage yield only. Concerning cutting treatments on studied characters as the average of two years, results indicated the out yielding the treatment of two cut in plant height, green and dry leaves%, green yield/plant, while the treatment of one cut out yielded two cuts in green and dry stem%, dry matter %, dry stem yield and dry forage yield, in which there are no significant effect of cutting treatment on No. of tillers/plant, dry weight/plant, dry leaves yield and green forage yield.
Concerning to the interaction effect between the two factors levels, the results of combined analysis indicate no significant effect on all characters except of plant height.

remote sensing ,GIS techniques ,survey ,studying land, cover, changes ,Kirkuk governorate

Dalshad R. Azeez

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 92-100
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41132

The objective of the study is for using remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring the changing of landuse and vegetation therefore we studied the change of landcover types during the years (1987-2007) in selected areas arrive at 273700ha for Kirkuk governorates from Iraq .Image of Landsat taken by (Thematic Mapper) TM for year 1987 and ETM+ for year (2007) were used . image classification are done for allocation land cover types by using ER-Mapper V 6.4 program. The results indicated that there are six abundant classes of landcover including soils 1&2,vegetations1&2,urban and water .Also clear changing of land cover areas observed during the year (1987 to 2007 )including reduction of soil2 and water areas in( 2007) by 12%and 0.01% respectively ,but vegetation1&2 , urban and soil1 were increased about 3.5 %, 0.19%, 1,0% and 7.31% respectively.