Volume 3, Issue 2, Autumn 2008, Page 1-133

Theoretical Study of the Addition

Najla Jalil Khalil

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42147

The factors affecting the rate of addition of benzyl radical ) ) to monosubstituted and 1,1- disubstituted ethenes were investigated. Benzyl radical was shown to be uncleophilic behavior as indicated by increasing its rate of addition to alkenes with decreasing electron density of un substituted carbon of the alkenes.

Activity of Alanine aminopeptidase and its isoenzyms partially purified from the urine of chronic renal failure patients.

Ferah G. Al-Salihi; Tagreed U. AL-Akabie

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42148

The study was performed on 50 urine specimens of patients with chronic renal failure ,in addition to the 92 healthy specimens as a control group. The results of the study revealed that Alanine aminopeptidase (AAP) activity of chronic renal failure patients urine shows a highly significant increase (p<0.0001) compared to healthy subjects. Alanine aminopeptidase was purified from urine patients with chronic renal failure and healthy subjects by gel filtration using sephadex G-50, and two isoenzyms of (AAP) I, II were separated from patients urine using anion exchanger (DEAE-sephdexA-50).

The helminths of Freshwatere fishes caught from waters of rural areas of Kirkuke governorate, Iraq

ZohairI.F. Rahemo; Fatin Muhammed Nawwab Al-Deen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42149

Six freshwater species of fishes have been subjected to parasitological investigation, which were collected from water in different urban area of Al-tamim governorate. The results revealed the presence of four species of helminthes; include one species of cestoda(Bothriocephalus gowokensis) collected from Cyprinus carpio and Aspiux vorax( with the rate 2.9 %and 25% respectively); one species of nematoda (Cucullanus cyprini) collected from the carp; two species of acanthocephalans namely Neoechinorhynchus rutili collected from Cyprinus carpio, Barbus luteus, Chondrostoma regius and Varicorhinus trutta. The incidence of infection in Cyprinus carpio(4.2% in males and 8.3 % in females); in Barbus luteus(2.5%); in Chondrostoma regius(8% in males and 9.9% in females) and in Varicorhinus . trutta(50%).The other species of acanthocephala is Neoechinorhynchus iraqinensis which has been revealed from Liza abu( 15.7% in males and 35% in females). From the result of the present study, it can be concluded, that, all four helminthic parasites are the first record in fishes caught from Kirkuk province.


Kh. Kh. A. Al-Gubory

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 34-46
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42150

Three crosses of upland cotton were carried out between SP8886 and each of the varieties, Lachata, Cocker310 and Dunn1047, and F1, F2, B1 and B2 generations of each cross were obtained. The six generations of each cross were tested in an experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications to study the genetic behavior for seed cotton yield per plant and some of its components. Generation mean analysis (least square method) was used with two models to estimate additive, dominance and epistatic effects, the first with three parameters (additive-dominance model) and the second with six parameters (additive-dominance-interaction model), and χ2 – test used to determine the fitness of the first model for characters: seed cotton yield per plant, plant height, number of fruiting branches, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and lint index. The results showed that the first model was adequate for most of the studied characters in the three crosses, therefore epistasis was not important in the inheritance of these characters except plant height in the cross (Lachata x SP8886) and seed cotton yield per plant in the cross (Cocker310 x SP8886). Dominance gene effects were relatively more important than additive effects in the inheritance of the most of studied characters. Narrow sense heritability estimates were varied from 17.441% for seed cotton yield per plant in the cross (Cocker310 x SP8886) to 69.999% for number of fruiting branches in the cross (Lachata x SP8886). The results also revealed the presence of positive heterosis and inbreeding coefficient for the most of the studied characters in the three crosses.



Nazar. S. AL- Zuheary

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 47-58
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42151

Factorial mating desiing involoing Four lines OF maize (Agr183 . w13R. W17.161 and R153) used as males and other five live lines (OH40. IK58. IK8. ZP and DK) used as females. The nine lines and crosses among them were planted using ACBDesing with three replications and data taken for traits: number of ears per plant length ead diamerer number of rows per ear ; number ofgrains per row 100 grain weight and grain yield per plant M arked significant heterosis was observed for almost al the traits examined lt was shown plant Marked significant heterosis was observed for almost al the traits examined lt was shown that nonadditive gene action was more important in the inheritance of all traits Among males (R153) and among femaler (lk8) were the best general combinors for the most of traits and the cross (W13RxZP)was the best specific combinor .

Hydraulic Performance for Al-Dhuloyia Spillway Using Physical Model

Salahddin A. Ahmad; Susan Sh. Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42152

A study was completed to compare flow parameters over a modified ogee-crested spillway which represent an existing project (Al-Dhuloyia Spillway) using a physical model and existing literature. The physical model was constructed by wood with smoothness surface and placed in a test flume. Pressure taps were installed along the entire length of the spillway. Discharge and pressure data were recorded for 10 different flow conditions. Data interpolated from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers design monographs provided discharge and pressure data from the literature. Non dimensional discharge curves are used to compare the results for both physical model and those of literature. Pressures are compared at low, mid, and high flow conditions. Also water surface profile for Al-Dhuloyia Spillway was compared with those of literature and for different discharge condition. It is shown that there is reasonably good agreement between the physical and that those for literature for pressures, discharges and water surface profile.

Geochemical Characterization of the Oil in the Tertiary Reservoir in Bai-Hassan Oil Field / Northern Iraq

Dler H. Baban

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42153

An oil sample from the Tertiary reservoir in the well BH-22 in Bai –Hassan Oil Field, Northern Iraq has been analyzed by the means of GC and GC/MS. The identified biomarkers and the stable carbon isotopes indicated a low salinity marine carbonate depositional environment for the precursor organic matters of the oil. CPI, 20S/ (20S+20R) C29ST, ββS/ (ββS+ααR) C29ST and other maturity biomarkers showed a moderately mature oil. Non effect of biodegradation has been found out from the ratios of P1, P2, and P3 and from the absence of 25-Norhopane biomarker. A Star diagram has been drawn for the analyzed oil sample as a finger print using C9 – C20 alkanes.

Suitability of Some Tigris Flood Plain Deposits as Impervious Fill Type "A" Class CL for Lining

Duraid B. Deikran

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42154

This paper evaluates the suitability of using some flood plain deposit between Samara and Tikrit as impervious blanket to prevent the leakage of water.
The scope of work includes: engineering geological evaluation of the study area, picking and testing samples and the final decision to accept or reject the sampled area according to well-known standards.

Synthesis of sulphur-containing hetrocyclic compounds

Dalia A. Abdule

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 88-95
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42155

Synthesis of 1,2,4,5-bis(cyclo)tetra(acetamido)sulphidebenzene and 1,2-cyclo diacetamidosulphide-4,5-dinitrobenzene from the reaction of 1,2,4,5- tetra(chloroacetamido)benzene and 1,2-dicloroacetamido4,5dinitrobenzene with hydrous sodium sulphide (Na2S.9H2O). The structures were confirmed by the use of I.R.,1H-N.M.Rspectroscopy

Effect of sintering temperature on TC of Bi2Ba2Ca2 Cu3O7-δ (system 2223)

Hussein A. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42277

samples of high temperature superconductors"Bi2 Ba2 Ca2 Cu3 O7-δ" were prepared by solid state reaction method with different sintering temperature(i.e 790,830,860,890) C°.X-ray analysis techniques were used to examine the structure of the compound, the study showed ,that the sample prepared during sintering temperature at 860 ċ exhibite tetragonal phase with lattice parameter,(a=b=5.408A°,C=30.88A°)while the compound prepared at 890C,° exhibit a change of structure from (tetragonal to orthorhombic) phase this is due to decreasing in(C)axises and increasing in the other two axis's (a,b)and the value of lattice parameters were a=5.418A°,b=5.429A°,C =30.75A°Electric resistively method were used to determine the critical temperature(TC)of these compounds using liquid nitrogen cryostat the compounds prepared at [790,830,860 and 890]C,°. Showed(TC)values of[105, 115,135, and92]K respectively.The change in(TC) values can be explained on the basis that increasing the sintering temperature produces a more uniform crystal structure and an increased oxygen content in the compound.

Gain and Noise Figure Performance of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

Banaz O. Rashid; Perykhan.M. Jaff

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42404

Fiber loss is a fundamental limitation in realizing long haul point–to-point fiber optical communication links and optical networks. One of the advanced technologies achieved in recent years is the advent of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) that has enabled the optical signals in an optical fiber to be amplified directly in high bit rate systems beyond Tetra bits. In this paper, a simulation of an EDFA has been studied to characterize Gain, Noise Figure of a forward pumped EDFA operating in C band (1525-1565 nm) as functions of Er+3 fiber length, injected pump power, signal input power and Er+3 doping density. The simulation has been done by using Optisystem 5.0 software simulator (license product of a Canadian based company) at bit rate 10 Gbps.

Optimal Transformation Technique To Solve Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problem (MOLPP)

Najmaddin A. Sulaiman; Abdul-Qader O. Hamadameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 96-106
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42459

In this paper ,we suggested a new technique by using optimal average(OAV) for function. and an algorithm is suggested for it is solution .The MOLPP criteria of Chandra Sen and Sulaiman & Sadiq(Sen,Chandra,1983 ; Sulaiman & Sadiq, 2006, respectively) ; has been modified in this paper. The computer application of algorithm also has been demonstrated by a flow-cart and solving a numerical examples .The numerical results in(Table3) indicate that the new technique in general is promising.

A new modified Leverrier's VM Update for solving

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati and Salah G. Shareef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 107-116
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42463

In this paper, a new VM-updating formula for solving unconstrained non-linear optimization problems is proposed. The new method is derived by using Faddeev's modification in order to modify Leverrier's VM-update.The new algorithm is tested by (8) nonlinear test functions, with different dimensions and compared with the standard BFGS algorithm.

On Finitely Annihilated Modules

Ali S. Mijbass; Hibat K. i Mohammadal; Najlaa A. saeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 117-133
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42471

Let R be a commutative ring with identity and M be a unitary R-module. An R-module M is called finitely annihilated if there exists a finitely generated R-submodule N of M such that ann(M)=ann(N).Our main purpose in this work is to study this property in some known classes of modules such as quasi-injective, multiplication and other modules. We prove that:
1-If M is a quasi-injective R-module, then M is finitely annihilated if and only if M is finendo.
2-If M is a multiplication R-module, then M is finitely annihilated if and only if M is finitely generated.
3-M is a faithful finitely annihilated R-module if and only if M is a compactly faithful R-module.

Hydrogeochemical properties of ground water in the vicinity of al-hawija plain se-Kirkuk, Iraq

Soran N. sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 28-40
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.47139

AL-Hawija plain is located at the south western part of Kirkuk city(N-IRAQ),with in the Hammrin-Makhul tectonic sub zone,the area is of simple topography with an average elevation of (360 m.a.s.l. ),having a semi-arid climate.Cultivation in the area depends on the rain water,and groundwater that has been extracted mainly from Miocene age,Pliocene fluvial sediments and recent deposits.The present study is mainly concerned with the evaluation of the quality of ground water to the different purposes.11ground water samples has been chemically analyzed from selected wells extracting water from different depths(80-120)m.and found that the ground water is of meteoric origin,very hard,having high PH values,while the values of total dissolved solids(TDS)are ranging between(1000-4500)mg/l,so that the water is of brackish type.on the basis of the major cation and anion concentration the groundwater is of(mixed Na and Ca-SO4) group having three families which are(Na2SO4)family with Na+>Ca+2>Mg+2-SO4-2>Cl->HCO3-and(CaSO4)water familyCa+2>Mg+2>Na+-SO4-2>Cl->HCO3-, and ( MgSO4 ) family with Mg+2 > Na+ > Ca+2-SO4-2 > Cl- > HCO3-. Generally the ground water in the area were not recommended for drinking purposes because of high salinity and it is(Doubtful to unsuitable-Unsuitable(for irrigation whereas it can be used to cultivate sensitive crops in areas of medium to coarse grained soil having a well designed drainage system beneath the agricultural.

Steganography (Encoding text and Hiding it within image)

Asim M. Murshid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 70-87
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.47142

The simple abstract we can talk about in this project is about the idea of information security has became very important thing in our life, so we can not depend only on data or information encryption but hiding it too which is called (Steganography).So it is a method in which we hide an information inside an other so the real information or data can not be seen. The information we want to hide in this project is a text message to be hidden in a picture which is a BMP (Bit Map) format which is simple. We will use the programming language (Visual Basic) to do this job, Hiding a text message in a picture needs on the other hand getting the image back from the picture so the program will contain this operation too.The data of the BMP picture will be replaced by the hidden text message so it may cause distortion in that place therefore the message must be distributed all over the picture so the distortion would be reduced. In the future we can hide another type of data inside another type of carrier (out world data) such as hiding text inside a voice file.