Volume 3, Issue 1, Spring 2008, Page 1-184

Striver the plagues okra crop level and the relationship with some peasantes personal factors in shirqat region Salah alddin province

Mahmood.H. Jasim; Kalaf.M. Khalifah; Said Kamil Tirky

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41902

أجریت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة مستوى مکافحة آفات محصول البامیا وعلاقته ببعض العوامل الخاصة بالزراع فی قضاء الشرقاط/محافظة صلاح الدین.جمعت البیانات من105زراع یمثلون10%من مجموع زراع البامیا للموسم2006.صممت استمارة استبیان لجمع البیانات مکونة من قسمین،تضمن الأول بعض العوامل الخاصة بالزراع فیما تضمن الثانی مستوى مکافحة أهم آفات البامیا فی المنطقة.بعد تحلیل البیانات إحصائیا"تبین إن مستوى مکافحة آفات محصول البامیا کان دون الوسط،وإن هنناک علاقة ارتباط بین مستوى المکافحة ومعظم العوامل المدروسة عند مستوى الاحتمالیة0.01أو0.05.

Effect of soil aggregate size on water propertis

Hisham M. Hassan; Hussein A.M. Al-Kahwaji

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 13-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41913

Silty clay soil sample was chosen from the surface layer (0-0.3 mm) from Al-Rashidia field and passed through a series of sieves to get aggregate size range from 0.4-6mm to study the effect of there sizes on water properties of the soil. Results indicated that the stability of different aggregate size were significant which represented by mean weight index. While the small aggregate size (0.04-3.00 mm) was significantly different in water holding capacity at the tension near field capacity compared with the large aggregate size (4-6 mm) which was significant at the tension near permanent wilting point. On the other hand, the ability of the small aggregate size of the diffusivity, penetrability and sorptivity were highly significant compared with the medium and large aggregate size. The hydraulic conductivity were highly significant for the medium and large aggregate sizes compared with the small aggregate.

Analysis of Retaining Wall Subjected to Earthquake Loading

Aram M. Raheem; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41932

A numerical method through finite element(FEM) with two models: Elastic &Equivalent Linear was used to investigate the seismic behavior of retaining wall supporting saturated, liquefiable, cohesionless backfill soil. Horizontal/Vertical displacement, pore water pressure, horizontal total stress in the soil at the face of the wall, and Max. shear stress in the soil at the base were measured. It was shown that the Equivalent model gives more reasonable results and the liquefaction zones concentrated in the passive side more than the active side. Max. horizontal displacement at the top of the wall reaches 0.67m while vertical displacement increased in the range(66-116)% with the wall increasing in dimensions. Both pore water pressure/horizontal total stress increased with time/dimensions in the range(37%),(200%) respectively.

The neotectonic map of Iraq

Duraid B. Deikran; Varoujan kh. Sissakian

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41945

A neotectonic map of Iraq was constructed according partly to the work of Soviet team during eighties of the last century. The lower surfaces of Upper Miocene are chosen to be a datum for the construction. This is because the mentioned datum was considered to be surfaces or phase of tectonic stability leading one to calculate the intensities of down warping and up warping movements with their associated rates. The mentioned intensities and rates are represented by isoclines on the constructed map.The constructed map depended on relatively recent available data from oil wells and surface geological surveying Four supplementary maps established surrounding the constructed map for the purpose of comparison.

Tectonostratigraphic History of Mesopotamian Passive Margin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic, South Iraq.

Wathiq Gh. Almutury and Maher M. Al-Asadi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 31-50
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41948

Passive margin of Mesopotamian zone formed by two tectonic phases: opening and closing phases. Opening tectonic phase (Permian-Jurassic) represents the beginning of Wilson cycle. This phase includes three stages: pre-rifting, rifting and post-rifting. In opening phase the passive margin was beginning in formation when the Iranian and Turkish plates split off from Arabian plate with the opening of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. The clastic sediments and evaporites deposited in passive margin, and then the gradual subsidence occurred for two reasons: thermal decay and crustal isostacy. Because of this subsidence, the thick chemical deposits accumulated in the passive margin. Closing tectonic phase (Cretaceous-Recent), include three stages: pre-collision, initial collision and collision stages. In this tectonic phase the plates moved together so Neo-Tethys became narrow. The compressive forces that effected on passive margin deformed the rocks and moved the salt rocks. Then the oil traps are formed and the width of Mesopotamian passive margin become narrow. Mesopotamian passive margin was ended in the Miocene, when the Arabian plate collide with Iranian plate.

Biomarker Indicators of Source and Depositional Environment for the Organic Matters within Barsarin Formation (Upper Jurassic) in Kirkuk and Taq Taq Oil Fields, Northern Iraq

Dler H. Baban and Shadan M. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 51-72
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.41950

The GC, GC/MS analysis for twelve bitumen extracts from Barsarin Formation in the wells K-109 and Tq-1 (Kirkuk and Taq Taq oil fields respectively) and for two oil samples from K-156 and Tq-1 wells revealed a euxinic, carbonate marine to mix environment for the initial organic matters. Pr / Ph, Pr / nC17, and Ph / nC18 ratios indicated also a marine source organic matters deposited under reduced condition with a less effect of biodegradation and mature stage of occurrence. The diasteranes / steranes ratio showed generally low ratios (0.27 – 0.56) as in most marine carbonate sources, while Algal-bacterial organic matter contribution for the extracts and the oil samples suggested depending on the predominance of C23 tricyclic terpane relative over the C19 tricyclic terpane and the C23 tricyclic terpane greater than C24 tricyclic terpane. The gammacerane Index indicated a low salinity environment of deposition for the initial organic matters existed in the analyzed samples.

Attenuation of seismic refraction waves in sedimentary layers

Abboud S.Ishag; Fitian R. Al-Rawi; Salman Z. Khorshid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42045

A study of attenuation of seismic refraction waves in sedimentary layers is carried out at two sites near Al-Riyadh and Baiji towns, Kirkuk Governorate in order to determine the attenuation coefficients of the two sites. The distance between these two sites is about 40 Km. Calculation of attenuation coefficients is based upon analysis of seismic field records, which are consist measurements using both vertical and horizontal geophones.The geometrical spreading factors for both longitudinal ( np) and transverse (ns) waves and their attenuation coefficients (αp, αs) are determined from the seismic data. The predominant frequency (fp,fs) with the quality factors (Qp,Qs) for both waves are also determined. The calculated values for np, ns, αp, αs, fp, fs, Qp, Qs and αs/αp at the first site are 2.106, 1.66, 0.057, 0.073, 55, 30.2, 7.2, 2.8 and 1.5 respectively. For the second site, only longitudinal wave is used to calculate the attenuation coefficient αp, predominant frequency (fp) and quality factor(Qp). The obtained values for np, ap, fp and Qp are 2.21, 0.055, 51 and 3.6 respectively.The obtained values can be considered as representative to the sedimentary layers in this area and can be of useful applications.

The titer base line of Brucella antigens in the healthy persons at rural community around Kirkuk city

Ibrahem S. Al-jebory

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 85-90
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42048

One hundred eighty three serum samples were collected from healthy persons living in villages around Kirkuk city and tested for the presence of brucella antibodies using slide agglutination test. The results showed that 123 sample gives positive results ranged between 1/20 to 1/320 (67.2%), in addition Coomb΄s test was used also to test the serum samples which give negative result with slide agglutination test show 16.3% chronic cases. The investigations indicate that the populations of these villages are highly susceptible to Brucella antigens, so the normality of antigen 1/160 suggested being the base line for diagnosis of Brucellosis in these rural areas.

A theoretical study for the effect of polarity, steric energy and energy levels for HOMO and LUMO orbitals on the rate of addition of methyl radical to some monosubstituted Alkenes.

Mostafa R.Aeyd

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 91-100
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42054

In this work The factors affecting the rate of addition of methyl radical to a number of monosubstitued Alkenes have been studied using quantum mechanical calculations. These factors include physical properties such as: electron densities (Total ED)on the carbon atoms involved in the addition reaction (carbon bearing the single electron in methyl radical and the carbon on the unsubstituted methylene carbon in Alkene),electron density on the substituted carbon, electron density on HOMO orbitals, energy level of HOMO orbital (EHOMO) and energy level of LUMO orbital (ELUMO). In addition, the steric energy in the transition state of the addition reaction also has been considered. The correlation between the logarithm of the addition rate constant (logK) and the physical properties has been established. The results of the regression analysis gave the best correlation coefficient (R=0.97) in the case of using (log K) as a dependent variable with three an independent variables which were: polarity, EHOMO, ELUMO. The most influencing factor on the rate of addition was the polarity followed by ELUMO while EHOMO and steric energy showed an insignificant effect.

Effect of Irrigation levels on the growth and yield of olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv.Ashrasie)

Bahram Kh. Mohammed; Ibrahim M. Noori

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 169-184
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42075

This study was performed at olive orchard at the Engineering College, University of Salahaddin- Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, during the growing season 2000-2001, on a sandy silty loam soil. The objectives of this study were to find out the responses of olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Ashrasie) to five irrigation frequencies (0,1,2,3 and 4) during drought season and to determine their effects on tree growth and yield. Numbers of replicates were three trees as a replicate. Forty-five trees of fourteen years old, Ashrasie cultivar were used, each nine uniform size trees distributed randomly among the 5 treatments in RCBD experiment. Irrigation treatments carried out at monthly intervals during the dry season, starting on June 1, by constant amounts of water for each treatment up to reach 60 cm soil depth to field capacity, using basin irrigation method. Irrigation treatments resulted significant increases in the shoot elongation and thickening percentages, leaf area at harvest, fruit yield and quality characteristics. As well as oil contents. The highest values of shoot elongation and thickening percentages were achieved when three irrigation treatments were used, while the best results of each leaf area at harvest, as well as oil content fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight and size, pulp/stone ratio, were obtained from fourth irrigation treatment.

On Centrally Semiprime Rings and Centrally Semiprime

Adil Kadir Jabbar; Abdulrahman Hamed Majeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 158-168
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42078

In this paper, two new algebraic structures are introduced which we call a centrally semiprime ring and a centrally semiprime right near-ring, and we look for those conditions which make centrally semiprime rings as commutative rings, so that several results are proved, also we extend some properties of semiprime rings and semiprime right near-rings to centrally semiprime rings and centrally semiprime right near-rings.

An Efficient Method for Solving

Omar M. Al-Faour

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 139-157
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42081

This paper presents a new method for solving fractional partial differential equations (FPDE) which is called the polynomial approximation method based on the polynomial approximation uN(x,t) and on its general fractional derivative formula.By modifying the general fractional derivative formula of uN(x,t) and with the aid of the linear FPDE, another new formula can be found for the approximation uN(x,t). This is the basic idea of the proposed method. Furthermore, the mathematical proof of the convergence and stability of this method have been studied. Some numerical examples show that the proposed method exhibits a satisfactory results.

Fourth Order Block-by-block Method to Solve System of Non-linear Volterra Integral Equations of the Second Kind

Borhan F. Jumaa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 129-138
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42088

In this paper we consider non-linear system of Volterra integral equations of the second kind (NSVIEK2). Fourth order block-by-block is modified and applied to solve NSVIEK2. A comparison between approximate and exact results for two numerical examples depending on the least-square error are given to show the accuracy of the results obtained by using this method. Programs are written in matlab program version 7.0.

Evaluation the correlation Energies and interelectronic distances and for some positive Ions.

Sabah M. Aman Allah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 101-112
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42090

The aim of this work is evaluation the expectation values of Correlation , repulsion between electrons ,attraction between electrons and nucleus energies and various one ,two electrons distances and (where d is an integer takes the values -2,-1,+1,+2) for some positive ions C+3,N+4,O+5.By employing the partitioning technique, four Hartree-Fock wave functions are analyzed of K , L shells and for Singlet 1S and Triplet 3S states.

Approximate Solution of the System of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind Using Spline Function

Rostam K. Saeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 113-128
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42093

This study deals with introducing spline function to find the approximate solution of the system of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The benefit of spline functions was demonstrated by presenting several examples.