Volume 2, Issue 3, Autumn 2007, Page 1-132

ِAnalysis and design of reinforced concrete walls under the effect of blast loading

Saad F. Salih; khaith M. Hassan; Hassan k. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 1-35
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43368

The aim of this study is to investigate a procedure for the analysis and design of reinforced concrete walls (back and two sides) as part of the structure to resist internal blast pressure. The effect of the blast pressure on the strength, serviceability, ductility, energy absorption capacity of reinforced concrete members (back and two side walls) and their behavior has been studied. This evaluation will specify the required thickness of the two side walls and back walls as part of the structure in addition to the quantity, shape and connection mechanism of steel reinforcement. To achieve the goal of this study, all the variables can be evaluated, experimental program was set up. It was intended to carry out a field test for the structure (box room) which is made of reinforced concrete having the internal dimensions of 3.3m*3.3m*2.6m (10.82 *10.82*8.52) ft. with strip footing having the dimensions 0.53m (1.76 ft). width and 0.54m (1.8 ft). thickness. The structure was subjected to a blast pressure due to a charge of weight 1.5kg (3.31 ib). for a recommended degree of protection in terms of ductility ratio = 2.00 .The objective of the test was justified since no scabbing at all was observed. It was found that the thickness 25cm (0.82 ft). for side walls and back wall can keep all the outside individuals, equipment and buildings safe and away from the danger of fire and fragmentation during the period of blast pressure. Good agreement was found to exit between the theoretical and the experimental results.

Geneticl nlysis of ginning outturn and fiber properties in crosses in hirsutum cotton

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 36-51
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43371

Half diallel crosses (excluded reciprocals) carried out among nine upland cotton varieties (Halab1, SP8886, Dunn1517, Cocker5114, Deltapine5409, Lachata, Dunn1047, Cocker310 and Deer22). Genotypes were planted using RCBDesign with 3 replications and data collected for ginning outturn, lint index, fiber finness, 50% & 2.5% span length, fiber length uniformity, fiber strength and elongation, and statistical analysis conducted to study general and specific abilities, gene action and some genetical parameters. The results showed significant differences among genotypes for all characters unless fiber finness and 2.5% span length.The varieties Halab90 and SP8886 and hybrid (Lachata x Dunn1047) shown as good general combnors and specific combinor respectively for larger number of characters. The dominance gene action appeared more important than additive one in controlling the inheritance of all studied characters, and the average degree of dominance exceeded one for all characters indicated the presence of over dominance. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 38.9% for fiber finnessto 97.3% for fiber elongation, and narrow sense heritability shown moderate for fiber elongation (28.7%)and low for remainder characters, while expected genetic advanceas percent of the mean appeared low for all characters (from 0.021 for 50% span length to 7.21% for fiber elongation).

Using selection index technique for improvement of yield and its components in durum wheat

Ghaadh. T. Abdulla

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 52-66
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43399

Eight varieties of durum wheat (Leeds, Waha, Um Rabie5, Azegar1, Um Rabie3, Brashua, Cyprus1 and Korfila) and their half diallel crosses were used in this study to construct several selection indices and calculate the gains expected in the yield. It was revealed that the selection index constructed from plant yield, number of spikes plant, number of tillers and harvest index had the highest increase in the efficiency (5.75%) as compared with direct selection for yield. This indicate that a selection index based on combination of characters, including yield, would have an advantage of practical significance over selection based on yield only. This index considered the superior due to it’s high efficiency and constructed of lowest number of characters. By the estimation of the eight varieties selection index values, it was found that Um Rabie5 had the best value, then Um Rabie3 and Azegar1 consequently.

Different applications effect of Atonik growth regulator on growth and yield of cotton

Nariman S. Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43410

The pots study was conducted during summer season of 2005 at the Field of Agriculture College - Sulaimani University to compare the influence of different application durations of growth regulator (Atonik) on two varieties of cotton (Lachata & Gedera236) which sown in pots in factorial experiment using CRD design with three replications. The result indicated that Gedera236 was surpassed significantly on Lachata variety in plant height and leaf area, While Lachata was gave a less number of non opened bolls with significant differences and there was no significant differences among the two varieties for the remainder characters. Significant differences were observed for the different durations of growth regulator application. Atonik application treats (after one month of Germination, at 10% flowering and at boll set stage) were surpassed the control and seed embedded treat in Atonik for 24 hrs. in most studied characters.
There was Significant interaction between varieties and Atonik application duration treats, Gedera236 at boll set stage was found to be superior in plant height, for the other characters (No. of fruit, branches, opened boll No., leaf area, chlorophyll percent, seed cotton yield and lint cotton, cotton yield and seed weight) Lachata has registered the highest mean value at boll set stage application. For ginning outturn the highest values was registered for Gedera236 during the application of Atonik at the beginning of flowering stage.

Study of the effects of some soil properties on the aggregate stability in selected pedons in sulaimany and Kirkuk governarates

Ihsan A. Ali; Dlshad R. Aziz; Aisal W. Taha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 77-92
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43415

The effect of chemical and physical properties of the soil on aggregate stability were studied. Fourteen pedons had been selected from Sulaimany and Kirkuk governarate.The correlation (linear regression) between aggregate stability and the chemical and physical properties were applied. The organic carbon contents are significantly correlated with aggregate stability in the surface horizons (R2 =0.89, n=14), while this correlation is weaker with total clay content and free iron oxide (R2=o.29,n=14) and (R2=0.21,n=14) respectivily. The results also indicated that the total calcium carbonate are not correlated with aggregate stability for both surface and subsurface horizons. Generally for subsurface horizons, all the cementing agents are not correlated with aggregate stability.

The Relationship between Geological Structure and Failure Type in the Rock Slopes of Parts of Anah Monocline, West of Iraq

Basim Rushdi Hijab; Saad Numan Al-Saadi; jaafer Hamza Ajjotheri

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43432

Field observations and assessment of rock slope stability in selected sites in Anah monocline, West of Iraq, revealed the presence of different types of slope failure. The distribution and abundance of failure types are related to different discontinuity patterns in various structural positions within the asymmetrical Anah monocline. This is the first study that relates failure types to the structural position in a major fold. This relationship was observed all over the monocline area and confirmed by studying four stations along a traverse normal to the fold axis. The study revealed that wedge sliding is relatively common in the northern limb of Anah monocline whose dip angle is(35) with conjugate shear joints (S2) whose intersection lines plunge downdip.The plane sliding is prevailing in the hinge area with conjugate shear joints (S1) whose intersection lines are parallel to the hinge of the fold. Toppling failure is relatively dominant in the southern limb whose dip angle is less than (5)with two pairs of vertical orthogonal joints (F1, F2, and F3, F4) which are normal to the bedding planes. Rockfall was almost equally abundant in all structural positions which indicates no structural position influence on it. The concluded relationships are attributed to the dependence of most failure types on the discontinuity pattern, which is in turn, largely influenced by the structural position, in addition to the relationship between the discontinuities and the slope face.

Palynofacies Analysis and Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Dokan and Gulneri Formations (Upper Cretaceous) from selected wells in Northern Iraqi Oil Fields

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 17-34
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43433

Sixty five cutting samples from Dokan and Gulneri Formations in three subsurface sections from Khabbaz, Jambour and Taq-Taq oil fields at Northern Iraq have been selected to be studied optically and analytically from Palynofacies points of view. Four palynofacies types have been determined depending on the ratio of the existed palynomorphs, phytoclasts, amorphous and opaque organic materials. The suggested paleoenvironment of deposition for Dokan and Gulneri Formations is seems to be deposited in proximal to distal shelf environment and that depending on the ratio of the palynomorphs, amorphous and phytoclasts to each other. The optical examination of the organic matter revealed the slightly mature to mature condition of the organic matter (TAI between 3 and +3). The GC analysis also supported such a maturity condition as the Pr/Ph ratio for the studied sections was greater than 1 while the Carbon Preference Index (CPI) less than 1. TOC values of different depths have been determined and types of amorphous organic matter from their ability to hydrocarbon potential also pointed out optically. By connecting between maturity stage, quality and quantity of the organic matters in the Formations of Dokan and Gulneri in the studied sections a number of oil and condensate-wet gas zones have been detected at certain depths of each section.

Heavy Metals Concentrations in Surface Soils of the Haweja Area South Western of Kirkuk, IRAQ

Hassan A. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43434

Twenty one samples of surface soils were collected in Haweja area of Kirkuk, Iraq. From the samples analysis the following heavy metal concentration (range) were obtained (in ppm): Mn(401-722), Cu(23-42), Zn(32-62), Co(30-43), V(28-60), Ni(110-189), Cr(270-360), Zr(110-212) and Fe ( in wt %)(0.85-2.27).
The results indicate that, in comparison with Kirkuk soils, surface soils in Haweja area have elevated metal concentration as a whole, except those of Cobalt and Vanadium. R-mode factor analysis reveals three elements associations and two singular elements (Co, Zr), accounting for 86.92% of the total data variance. The three associations are: Zn-Cu; Mn-Fe and V-Cr. The geoaccumulation indices show that surface soils in Haweja area are unpolluted to slightly polluted.

Determination of some trace elements Zn,Cu and Fe in the blood serum for patients with thyroid disease in middle and south of Iraq using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Abdul Majeed K.Ahmad; Mostafa .R. Aeyd and Kameran .S.Hussein

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 49-63
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43436

This investigation included the determination of some trace elements Zn, Cu, and Fe in the blood serum by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry after finding the optimum conditions for the estimation which involve the wave length, spectral band, lamp current, the burner width and the burner height.The concentration of zinc in the blood serum of the patients with hyperthyroidism was in the range of (0.596-0.681mg.l-1) which was lower than that of control concentration range (0.801-0.850mg.l-1) whereas for the patients with hypothyroidism was (0.601-0.748mg.l-1).The concentration of cupper in the patients with hyperthyroidism was higher range (0.93-1.12mg.l-1) than that of average concentrations in control (0.85-0.86mg.l-1) but decreased in the patients with hypothyroidism in the range of (0.77-0.83mg.l-1).The concentration of iron in the serum was increased in the patients with hyperthyroidism (0.97-1.03mg.l-1) and in the patients with Hypothyroidism (0.80-0.91mg.l-1) comparing with control concentrations (0.90-0.95mg.l-1).The concentration linear range was (4-0.5) mg.l-1 and correlation coefficient ( r ) was not less than 0.984. The statistical and other analytical results show that the relative standard deviation RSD% for trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe) were (2.4, 1.5, 2.3) and detection limits were (0.0063, 0.0087, 0.0093)mg.l-1 respectively with percent recovery ranged between (95.0-100)%. The results obtained by this research give a good explanation for the spread of thyroid disease in middle and south of Iraq.

A new automated method for the determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Ahmed A. Ibrahim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43437

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or sedimentation rate is a measure of the settling of red blood cells in a tube of blood during one hour. The rate is an indication of inflammation and increases in many diseases. A comparative study between the standard Westergren and a new automated method for the determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was performed on 60 individual subjects. From this study, the comparison-of-methods plot automated method (Y) and VS Westergren method (X) gave the least square linear regression equation of Y=1.0753 X+ 0.4594 (r=0.9761) . Precision analysis gave a coefficient of variation below 3%. At present the new automated method seems to be an effective and safe technique for determination of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

The Lattice Specific Heat of RENi5 Compounds at Low Temperatures

Rafea A.Monef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 70-78
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43438

The lattice specific heat ,CL, and Debye temperatures , θD(o),of the rare earth metals with nickle compounds (RENi5) have been estimated at low temperatures (T<30K) by scaling results of the specific heat of the non-magnetic compound LaNi5. The magnetic specific heats,Cm, and the magnetic entropy,Sm, in some magnetic RENi5 compounds have also been recalculated and compared with the other published results.

Solving Linear Equations Using Matrix Splitting for Iterative Discrete-Time Methods in Neural Networks

Essa I. Essa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 79-87
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43439

The material presented in this paper is the foundation for neural network architectures that can perform (Solving linear equations using matrix splitting for iterative discrete-time methods in neural networks).As announced a neural network consists of many inter connected processing elements (neurons or nodes), I can begins with the presentation of a particular neural network is dependent on the training phase (specifically the training data used). Matrix splitting solved in several preprocessing methods. Many times it’s necessary to processes the training data to extract important features from the data can be used to train the network instead of the “raw” data. The preprocessing of the training data can therefore, improve the performance of the neural network. Then, the convergence is achieved using the Richardson and Gauss-Seidel methods, respectively. The same termination criterion was used for both these methods in order to properly compare all the results we see that the SOR iterative method gives the best results, that is, the fastest convergence. Comparing the SOR results with the next-best results (Gauss-Seidel, ); we see that the SOR method is about 10 times faster.

Global and Suplinear Convergent VM-Algorithms for nonlinear Optimization

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati and Maha S. Al-Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 88-106
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43440

In this paper a new class of self-scaling VM-algorithms for nonlinear optimization are investigated. Some theoretical results are given on the scaling strategies that guarantee the global and super linear convergence of the new proposed algorithms. Numerical evidence on thirty two well-known nonlinear test functions is generally encouraging.