Volume 2, Issue 1, Spring 2007, Page 1-117

Study the ability of using of solar energy for domestic heating in Kirkuk city

O.K. Ahmad; H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43507

In this study , a solar collector has been costructed by using prous media (emery) as absorbeing and storing surface. The solar collector is inclined of ( ) of the horizon. Heat is absorbed from the solar collector by forced convection of air. The solar collector was applied on building with dimensions (10 x 7 x 2.5 m ).The solar collector has been studied in the active system. This has shown that it is of a medium performance that it gives the highest rate of solar heat fraction ( SHF) about (0.52), which is a less value than what is neede, so the solar collector needs a high auxiliary heater to keep the hall temperature at (18 oC).

Dynamic Loadings Of Precastretaining Walls

Saad Farhan Salih Majid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 11-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43519

The research aims for the selection of a suitable retaining wall amongst two types of precast concrete walls under dynamic loads (wave pressure). The first wall is of a triangular cross section and has the dimensions (3)m (in height) by (2.2) m (in width) by (0.25-0.3) m (in thickness) and the width of piece (1.44) m. The second wall has dimensions of (6.4)m (in height) , (3.5) m (base width) and thickness (0.18-0.3) m with the width of piece (2) m .Tests were carried out on both to establish the stability characteristics by the factor of displacement for the composite walls of both specimens, and comparing the results with those of the theoretical analysis. The first specimen showed very little displacement under dynamic loads resulted from a load of (125) kg of charge weight at a distance (10) m , and compares reasonably with the analytical calculations which give only (3-5) cm. The second specimen, with steel frame showed a displacement of (5) cm compared to the calculated displacement of (14) cm when tested from a load of (125) kg of charge at distance (15) m. The rotational characteristics and overturning behavior for the walls, in both specimens showed no signs of rotation or overturning .This was predicted by analysis since the subjected loads were well below the required loads which caused rotation or overturning. The subjected loads were a third and half of the required load for (rotation and overturning) for the first and second specimens respectively. The results of the equations for both pressure and displacement are greater than the experimental results. Also it was shown that the presence of retaining precast walls did not prevent negative wave pressures and this is natural as it is less effective than the positive wave pressure and its impact is limited on reinforced concrete structures. The linear acceleration measured by linear acceleration devices showed an acceleration equivalent to five times the earth gravitational acceleration which reflects itself by shaking of the concrete walls. The vertical angle of inclination of (20o) showed clear effect in dissipating wave pressure.

Robust Model Selection in Linear regression

Dr. Sabah Haseeb Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 55-69
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43525

The research deals with the proposing of robust formula for the accumulate prediction error (APE) criterion which is used in selecting regression model. The proposed formula evaluated with a simulation study. The formula performed very well against outliers than other robust criteria used in this area especially in the case of small samples.

Effect of tow types of cultivaitors on weed control & the yield for apricot orchard in grdarasha field / erbil

Bahram kh. Mohammed; Hussein Th. Tahir; Talat M. Amin

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43529

This study was carried out in Apricot Orchard in garderashe field – salahhadeen university - Erbil. Two cultivators are used harrow disk & tine chisel with two forward speeds are (4 km/ hr) & (6km/hr) with three depths are (5-8 cm),(8-12 cm)& (12-15 cm) and affects this factors on; 1- Mechanization parameters: slippage percentage and weed controlled percentage. 2- Plants parameters: the told of the trees, the told of the main branch of the trees and number of fruits for one tree. Then using of randomized complete block design. The statistical results illustrated; the effect of the cultivators on all parameters: Superlative of the harrow disk significantly on all parameters than tine chisel. The effect interaction between cultivators with speeds and with depths on all parameters: The treatment of the harrow disk with second speed with second depth is recorded highest ratio of weeds control (85.24%) and highest number of fruits for one tree (530). The harrow disk is suitable in Orchard than the tine chisel.

Realation of yield and its components with different picking

Khalid Kh. Al-Juboori

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 105-117
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43531

The experiment was carried out at Karkuk Governorate through 2005 season to study the response of yield and some of its components foe Lachata and Coker310 varieties to different picking times using RCBDesign in split plots in time with tthree replications, different picking of seed cotton were taken (as sup plots) from the two cotton varieties (planted in main plots).Data were taken on traits: seed cotton yield per plant, number of opened bolls per plant, boll weight, lint index, seed index and ginning outturn.The results showed that the mean square for varieties was significant for all traits except boll weight, and for picking times was significant for all traitsK and the interaction among them was significant only for seed index and ginning outturn. The variety Lachata was superior than coker310 for seedcotton yield, ginning outturn and number of opened boll, while Coker310 was superior for seed and lint indices. The early picking date shown higher values af all traits means except ginning outturn which reaches its lowest value at early picking time. From trend analysis study for picking times effect, it was shown that the response of seedcotton yield, ginning outturn, seed index and number of opened boll to picking times was cubic, while it was linear and quadratic for lint index and boll weight respectively (determination coefficients for all these relationships ranged from 94.5% for lint index to 99.9% for boll weight).

First record of digenetic trematodes of frogsRana ridibunda ridibunda collected from Kirkuk, Iraq.

Husain F. Hassan and Shukriya A. Mohamed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43533

In this study which has been done between November 2005 and March 2006, 50 frogs (Rana ridibunda ridibunda ) were collected from Kirkuk governorate (Kirkuk city , Dubis , Taza and Kara injeer ) and examined for digenetic trematodes .Three species of digenetic trematodes Haematoloechus medioplexus , Pleurogenoides medians and Gorgoderina vitelliloba were observed. These species were first recorded in Iraq.

A comparative study of Iodine content in the drinking water From Kirkuk and Nasrya Governments - Iraq

Hassan A.Al-Jumaily

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-54
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43543

The present study is concerned with quantitative analysis of Iodine in drinking water of Nasrya and Kirkuk areas by using amplification reaction s-spectrophotometer method. As a result of the differences in geological setting of both areas, an appreciable increase in Iodine relative to the stations at Nasrya comparison of stations at Kirkuk . The detail analytical data show a decrease in Iodine content during treatment of raw water at the pumping stations of both areas , where as comparison of analytical data points out higher Iodine content ( once and half times ) in drinking water at Nasrya relative to Kirkuk areas .The geographical location of Nasrya area nearby Al-Ahwar region , the sea source of the dominant local foods and the nature of the local soil in addition to higher Iodine content its drinking water, favor reduction in the IDD patients at Nasrya relative to Kirkuk areas . Such conclusion is confirmed by the available statistics of the numbers of IDD patients at both areas during (1985-1990), however , at later period (1991-1997) , this trend of statistics differs noticeably , as showing by the ratio of the number of patient at Nasrya to Kirkuk area ranged between (0.54 - 0.78) compared to ( 0.20 – 0.52 ) during previous period ( 1985 – 1990 ) . The present study discusses the effective factors in in the variation of statistic. Among such factors is the increase in hardness of drinking water at Nasrya area ( 1.196 ml mohs / cm ) compared to ( 0.463 ml mohs / cm ) at Kirkuk area . Sulphide and other elements contributes to the hardness of water , however , its abundance in water leads to reduction of the available Iodine for absorption during human biological processes .

Origin of plagiogranites in the mawat ophiolite complex,kurdistan region, NE Iraq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43544

The igneous mass in Mawat Ophiolite Complex (MOC) is built up by various basic and ultrabasic intrusions that are associated with minor acidic, intermediate and basic intrusion. The present study was examined the minor acidic intrusions (plagiogranite), with associated basic igneous rocks in order to understand the possible origin of these rocks. The plagiogranite in MOC composed mainly of quartz and alkali feldspar with rare Ca-plagioclase. These rocks are metaluminous, low-K calc-alkaline with mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of oceanic plagiogranite (trondhjemite). They are characterized by high Sr, Ba, Th, concentration and low Ni, and Cr contents. They are also display chondrite – normalized REE patterns characterized by LREE enrichment, moderate to minor HREE fractionation. Trace element distribution patterns show that these rocks are distinctively enriched in large ions lithophile element LILE compared to high field strength elements HFSE. This feature is commonly apparent in volcanic arc granite. The origin of plagiogranite in MOC explained as a result of partial melting of hydrated basaltic / gabbroic rocks.

Sedimentology and hydrocarbon generation potential of middle tithonian-berriassian chia gara formation,well k-109, Kirkuk oil field, NE Iraq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 27-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43545

The Chia Gara Formation (M.Tithonian-Berriasian) from the well K-109 has been studied in detail sedimentologically and from hydrocarbon potentiality point of view. The studied rock samples obtained from the North Oil Company, Kirkuk. The formation consists of alternation of dark fissile calcareous shale and organic-rich limestone layers (argillaceous limestone). The limestone beds are thin and lacking any bioturbation. The lower contact is conformable with the Barsarin Formation and the upper boundary is gradational with the Karimia Formation. The radiolarian mudstone-wackestone is the major microfacies in the succession. Nearly all radiolarians are filled by calcite as a major diagenetic process.The TOC% has a range between 0.62% and 7.26%, with high values in the lower part of the Formation. The type of organic matter is mostly brown amorphous as seen in palynological slides and the TAI is about 3+.The Rock-Eval Pyrolysis results indicate low value of HI and the type of kerogen is type II-S & III. Several diagrams used for determining the type of kerogen,maturity and oil or gas potentiality.The kerogen is mature and in oil zone.The sulfur content as determined from CNS analyzer is high in the lower part of the sequence. All sedimentology and organic geochemistry data reveal that the formation deposited in deep shelf basin (Late Jurassic passive continental margin of the Arabian Plate) with quiet and warm water. The euxinic environment can be concluded from the absence of microboring and high rate organic matter preservation as well as the abundance of pyrite. The Chia Gara sediments could be considered as an important source rock for petroleum in accumulated oil in Kirkuk structure.

Development of high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of famotidine and ranitidine.HCl in pharmaceutical preparations

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-56
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43546

A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed , validated and applied for the determination of famotidine and ranitidine.HCl in pharmaceutical preparations.The effects of pH, mobile phase composition and concentration of organic modifiers on retention of the investigated drugs were studied. Famotidine and ranitidine.HCl were chromatographically separated from tablets using two columns of different polarity ; Lichrosorb RP-18 ( 15cm x 4.6mm i.d ) 5μm particle size and Lichrosorb RP-8 (25cm x 4.6mm i.d ) 5-10 μm particle size with mobile phase composed of 20:80 v/v of acetonitrile in 0.2% diethyl amine in water (pH=3). UV detection was set at 270nm for famotidine and 322nm for ranitidine.HCl . The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 20-70μg .ml-1 for famotidine and 20-120μg .ml-1 for ranitidine. The RSD% was not more than 0.85% and relative error between -0.75-2.08% indicating a good precision and accuracy. The limits of detection were found to be (1.13) and (0.83)μg.ml-1 for famotidine and ranitidine.HCl respectively with recoveries ranged from 98 to 99% .

Solution of a System of Linear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind by Iteration Methods

Rostam K. Saeed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43547

In this paper, we consider the linear system of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. Three methods are used to solve this system, successive approximation method, Aitken's method depending on successive approximation method and a new procedure which is Aitken's method depending on Adomian decomposition method. A comparison between approximate and exact results for two numerical examples depending on the least-square error, are given to show the accuracy of the results obtained by using these methods.

A new hybrid scaled search direction for unconstrained optimization

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 69-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43548

The best spectral CG-algorithm which is introduced by (Birgin &Martinez) and (Andrei. N) is modified in this paper by a hybrid search direction to overcome the lackness positive definiteness of the matrix defining the search direction.Two successive scalar parameters are introduced in this paper which are satisfy QN-like condition.These parameters are combined in such away to give a hybrid scaled search direction.The new proposed algorithm is still global convergent both theoretically and numerically.Computational results for (43) unconstrained test functions(Andri.N)show that the new algorithm substantially outperform the well- known(Andrei.N) scaled algorithm including the spectral (Birgin & Martinez) algorithm

On Zero-Symmetric Left Centrally Prime Near-Rings

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 82-93
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43550

Our aim in this paper is: to give some properties of zero-symmetric left centrally prime near-rings, then looking for those conditions which make zero-symmetric left centrally prime near-rings abelian, so that several conditions are given under which zero-symmetric left centrally prime near-rings become abelian.

Effect of using two types of local mineral mud (mohammed –torhan and Kirkuk) instead of activated sodium bentonite upon the haematological and biochemical parameters for female quails fed diet contaminated with aflatoxin


Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 94-106
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43551

Two hundred and twenty four Japanse quail females ( 42 days old ) were randomly fed control diet and with thirteen diets contained two levels ( 0.4 and 0.8% ) of each local mineral muds: M – T, K and A. S. B with or without 2.0mg of AF/kg diet for 8 weeks. The statistical analysis showed significant decrease ( P ≤ 0.05 ) the value of the haematological and serum biochemical parameters and some blood enzymes activity ( GOT, GPT and ALP ) of the quail females fed diet contaminated with 2.0mg of AF/kg diet. The addition of the natural adsorbents ( M–T,K and A. B. S ) led to significant correct the abnormality of the haematological, serum biochemical parameters and activity of some blood enzymes except the value of MCHC by addiding 0.8% of M – T or K, mud noted there were no significant differences between the efficiency the three kinds of natural muds used in this study.

Matric potential at wetting front as a function of soilwater properties

Hussein A.M.J. Al-Kahwaji; and Hassan . H . M

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 82-104
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.47535

This study was conducted at three locations differ in their textures and land uses at Nineva Governorate to estimate the matric potential at wetting front under field condition for both planted / unplanted soils, by applying some equation depends on hydraulic functions during water infiltration in double ring infiltrometer. Results indicated that the values of matric potential at wetting front as a function of volumetric water contents were more accurate than the values of matric potential as a function of the hydraulic conductivity . On the other hand , results indicated that the value of matric potential as a function of both soil texture , saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductives were diffrent. Also, the value of matric as a function of measured and calcluted air- entry were relatd to pore size distribution .