Volume 17, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 1-43


Evaluation of Genetic Variability between Local White Chicken and Commercial Lines by RAPD-PCR and Sequencing of 18s rRNA Gene

Hemin Hussein Ali; Dilger Maghded Khdr; Aram M. Ahmed; Shirkoo Ameen Fateh Salai; Rozhgar A. Khailany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.174517

The present study investigated and identified genetic diversity between native White chicken lines and two commercial Broiler (Rose) and Layer (Isa Brown) chicken breeds using RAPD markers and a sequencing technique. All primers applied produced 151 scorable bands with percentage polymorphic loci of 54.93 % within chicken populations, as per the results of the RAPD marker. The maximum amplified fragment by primer OPC-11 was 22 and the fewest by primer OPAA-03 was 7. For all loci analyzed, the effective number of alleles (ne), means the observed number of alleles (na), Shannon's information index (I), and gene diversity (h) was 1.4394, 1.5493, 0.3496, and 0.2441, respectively. The presence of a high number of polymorphisms and targeted (71) loci across all chicken populations indicates that RAPD-PCR techniques provide sufficient genetic distance and higher genetic variation among chicken populations. The highest identity of the blasted sequences of the 18srRNA gene of local white chicken is 90.41 % and 84.23 %. Likewise, a total of 46 and 27 nucleotides are altered with 27 and 10 gaps in both sequences for the first and second regions, respectively. According to both phylogenetic trees, the local white chicken had a stronger sense of individuality and was slightly closer to the commercial broiler breeds than the layer chicken breeds. As a result, it suggests that enhancing the local chicken line requires a broiler breeding program, as well as cross-breeding with other native chicken lines to obtain hereditarily significant new strains.



 

A review of the uses of the ketogenic diet

Qays Assi ahmed; Khalida Khalil Abdullah; Wurood Mohamed Mutar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.132824.1058

To reduce the health complications of obesity, safe therapies and effective weight loss processes must be identified with preventing weight regain at the same time.Humans have metabolic flexibility and the potential to utilise ketones as an energy source by reducing carbohydrate intake in the diet, this reduces insulin levels, and ketogenesis occurs . These conditions promote the release of excess stored fat, avoid muscle weakness, and improve insulin sensitivity. Losing weight by diet causes appetite feeling and a rise in ghrelin release , that raises the likelihood of regaining weight and is thus counterproductive to goals for weight reduction . A study's aim is to review evidence on a ketogenic diet for weight loss and metabolic illnesses like insulin resistance, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease development, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. We present a foundational understanding of dietary ketones and how they are formed.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Marwan Ahmed Jassim Al-Salami; Moneer Khadhim Muhsin; Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 20-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.132503.1055

This research concerns the synthesis of two carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCs) complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II). The synthesized complexes were characterized using (FT-IR) showing absorption peaks in the region (566 cm-1) which belongs to the bonds of Cu(II) with carboxymethyl chitosan [Cu(CMCs)2] and (580 cm-1) which belongs to the bonds of Ni(II) with carboxymethyl chitosan [Ni(CMCs)2]. Molar conductivity was determined for both complexes [Cu(CMCs)2] and [Ni(CMCs)2] and the results showed that these complexes non-electrolytes . UV-visible has been also recorded for [Cu(CMCs)2] complex solution (0.50 x 10-3M) is absorbed at (295 nm). It is proposed that [Cu(CMCs)2] possess a square planar structure. Whereas [Ni(CMCS)2] is absorbed at (290 nm) supposing that the structure of this complexes is tetrahedral. The absorbance of both complexes can be attributed to the (π→π*).

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation Antibacterial Activity of Some (1,3-Oxazepine-4,7-dione and 1,3-Benzooxazepine-4,7-dione) Derived from Sulphamethoxazole using Irradiation Method.

Fouad Ahmed Omar; Ayad Sulaiman Hamad; Nihad Ismael Taha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 27-35
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.131552.1048

In this study, new compounds of Schiff bases were prepared (1-6), from the reaction of sulfamethoxazole with benzaldehyde derivatives. Schiff bases (1-6) converted to 1,3-Oxazepine-4,7-dione and 1,3-Benzooxazepine-4,7-dione derivatives (7-18) through the reaction of Schiff bases with maleic anhydride as well as phthalic anhydride using crushing, grinding and microwave irradiation method. The structures of all prepared compounds have been identified by (I.R) technique, also some of the prepared compounds have been identified by (1H-NMR,13C-NMR) techniques. The biological activities have been carried out for some compounds such as (9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17) against two types of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coil.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Intestinal Helminthes from Stray Cats in Kirkuk City

sabreen Y. Gaieb; Husain F. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 36-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.130586.1034

In the present study 25 stray cats were collected and dissected in order to identify and diagnose the intestinal parasitic helminthes. The results of the study demonstrated the infection of all stray cats with one or more parasitic helmithes. The identified helminthes belonged to: three species of trematodes which were Echinochasmus sp. (4%), Heterophyes sp. (4%) and Prohemistomum  sp. (4%), four species of cestodes which were Diplopylidium sp. (24%), Dipylidium caninum 48%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei sp. (16%) and Taenia taeniaformis (12%), and  three species of nematodes which were  Physaloptera preputalis (4%), Toxocara cati (8%) and Toxoascaris leonina (8%). Three species of trematodes (Echinochasmus, Heterophyes, Prohemistomum) were isolated for the first time from stray cats in Iraq.