Main Subjects : Physics


Study of the Effect on the Structural Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Thin Films Doped with Aqueous Zinc Acetate after Exposing them to X-Rays and then to a CO2 Laser Beam and Vice Versa.

Abeer Kadhim; Khalil Ibrahim Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.131389.1045

the study of the structural properties of the prepared films The to study the effect of each of the irradiation with a CO2 And a beam of X-rays, as well as the effect of the doping process on the thin films of a (PVA) doped with aqueous zinc acetate. By 5%, the casting method was used to make it into a thin film It is deposited on 25.4 * 12.5 nm, and its thickness is approximately 380.42 nm. Then the samples were divided into two parts, the first exposed to a CO2 laser beam at a constant energy of 10 Watt and (3,6,9,12 sec), then it was exposed to X-rays for 1.5 h. And fixing the voltage of the X-ray f (5KV). The second section of the samples were exposed to X-rays for different periods of time (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 h) with a voltage of (5 KV). Then, t exposed to a (CO2) laser with a energy of 10 Watt and a fixed exposure time of 10 sec. The effect of irradiation in both cases studied on the optical and structural properties. The results of (XRD) that the mixture (PVA + Zn) showed that the crystalline nature is amorphous. For the purpose of studying the topography of the surfaces, the results of (AFM) showed a decrease in the particle size after irradiation of the mixture, and it was found that the effect of irradiation is more responsive in the case of (Laser + X-Ray)than of (X-Ray + laser).

Effect of Incompressibility and Symmetry Energy Density on Charge Distribution and Radii of Closed-Shell Nuclei

Shaymaa H. Amin; Ahmed Aziz Al-Rubaiee; Ali H. Taqi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 17-28
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.135889.1073

In this work, the effect of incompressibility modulus KNM and symmetry energy density J on charge distribution and root-mean-square radii of neutron Rn and proton Rp has been investigated for light, medium and heavy closed-shell nuclei 40, 48Ca, 90Zr, 116Sn, 144Sm and 208Pb within the framework of self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) with 20 types of Skyrme interactions having wide range of nuclear properties such as incompressibility modulus KNM and symmetry energy density J. The nuclear charge densities have been obtained and compared with the experiment data to give us a picture about the internal structure of the investigated nuclei. Also, the sensitivity of proton and neutron root-mean-square radii to nuclear matter properties has been examined by determining and discussion the statistical Pearson linear correlation coefficient.

Study and Characterization of Super Paramagnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Chitosan Polymer (SPIONs-CS)

Ruqaya mahmoud khalaf; Hussain Salah Akbar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.131864.1050

Preparation of iron salts Fe + 3 Fe+2 This study aims to prepare super-magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan-CS SPIONs in an easy and inexpensive chemical way, which is the method of co-precipitation mediated in aqueous solution and mixing it with a solution of chitosan CS dissolved in dilute citric acid 1 % and precipitation of this mixture in a solution of NaOH and sodium citrate acid as a surfactant inside a closed system using an inert atmosphere for nitrogen gas N2 and a packaging method during the preparation. These particles were diagnosed by (XRD), and it was found that the particles coated with chitosan SPIONs-CS contain the crystal structure of iron oxide and that the polymer shell did not affect its crystal phase. It has a super magnetic property that decreases with increasing concentrations of the chitosan polymer encapsulating the particles, but it is sufficient to respond to the magnetic field. It was found from the diagnostic results that the prepared secondary particles were within the nanoscale 20 nm according to in TEM, which is Converging with the obtained size of 22.8 nm XRD technique, Zeta potential analysis results showed that the SPIONs-CS had a negative surface charge after encapsulation with a zeta voltage of -28.4mv at 0.125 chitosan concentration.g CS . (SEM) diagnosis results showed that the particles are spherical in shape and spaced according to the CS chitosan concentrations used for encapsulation with an average diameter of (27.58nm, 20.023nm and 35.127nm) for three concentrations (0.100g, 0.125g, 0.150g), respectively.

Comparison of the change in viscosity of a polyvinyl alcohol solution by adding Polyethylene glycol and Polyvinylpyrrolidone to solutions of Polyvinylalcohol

Najla Ali Elgheryani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.173409

The aim of this research is to improve the flow properties of polymers, in particular viscosity, by mixing polymers to be use in various fields. Samples prepared by stirring polyvinyl alcohol on fire for half a second in a fixed weight ratio with divergent weight ratios of polyethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone, both separately. Other samples were prepared in the same way by mixing the three polymers followed by measuring the molecular weight of all the samples.  This method of preparation made the polymers insoluble in water, therefore nitric acid was used to dissolve them. Flow time of the solvent and all solutions were measured, which was used to calculate the viscosities, It has been shown that these viscosities increase with increasing concentrations of polymers in solutions by establishing a positive relationship between them, It was found that the intrinsic viscosity decreases with increasing concentrations after being graphed using intrinsic viscosity calculations from the relationship between specific viscosity and relative viscosity logogram with concentration. These results may be used in industrial medical applications as well as scientific studies.

Maximum Track length Approach for Estimation of Bulk Etch Rate of CR-39 Detector by Means of Track Diameter-Length Correlation

Saeed Hassan Saeed; Abrar Qasim Mustafa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.169997

In this paper, we use maximum track length  approach depending on track diameter-length (D-L) correlation as another way to estimate  directly from empirical measurements of the track diameters or lengths without resorting to other methods. The lengths of the tracks have been extracted using the (D-L) correlation which relied on the measurement of the opening’s diameter of the etched tracks, in addition to using the Track-Test program . 241Am (1μCi) source was used to irradiate the plastic detector CR-39 with alpha particles of energies of (3.5-5.3) MeV by means of normal incidence. The irradiated detectors were treated by a chemical etchant for distinct intervals of time using an aqueous NaOH solution of 6 N preserved at temperature (70±1) . An empirical formula was applied to calculate . The formula relies on two parameters, the maximum length of the track  and its saturation time . We have seen that the magnitude of  is equal to 1.407 , which can be regarded as compatible with the values indicated by others using different methods. It has been noticed that the maximum length of the etched tracks is directly proportional to alpha energy while exponentially to saturation time of the length.

The Effect of Sunspots Number on Critical frequencies foF2 For the Ionospheric Layer-F2 Over Kirkuk City During the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24

Elaf Farhad Bakr; Wafaa Hasan Zaki; jawdet hedayet Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.170001

           The study of the F2-layer properties and the critical frequency(foF2) is necessary to understand the dynamic features and thus more accurately predict the behavior of the F layer, and this research aims to find the relationship (correlation) and interdependence between the critical frequency (foF2) of Ionospheric layer F2 and Sunspot number. In this study the characteristics and behavior of F2 layer during Solar cycle 24 were studied, the effect of Sunspots number (Ri) on the critical frequency (foF2), were investigated for the years (2012, 2013, 2014) which represents the ascending phase and 2014 represent the peak phase of the solar cycle 24 over Kirkuk city (35° N, 44° E) by finding the critical frequency (foF2) values, the layer’ s impression times are determined for the days of solstice as well as equinox, where the solar activity was examined for the days of the winter and summer solstice and the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes for a period of 24 hours by applied the International Reference Ionosphere model IRI (2016). The output data for foF2 were verified by using the IRI-Ne- Quick option by specifying the time, date and Sunspot number parameters. Statistical analysis was caried out through the application of the Minitab (version 2018) in order to find the correlation between the critical frequency (foF2) of Ionospheric layer F2 and Sunspot number. It was concluded that the correlation is strong and positive, this indicate that critical frequency (foF2) increase with increasing Sunspots number (Ri) for solar cycle 24.

Review: Influence of Radiation on Female Fertility and Pregnancy

soma S. mohammed amin; Kharman A. Faraj

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-23
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.168660

Radiations made up of non-ionizing and ionizing radiations, this classification is based on the ionizing power and the energy of radiations. In developed and developing communities, people are continually exposed to radiations which are generated from variety sources that are naturally occurring or producing by human. The purpose of this study is to review accessible information on the influence of radiation on female fertility and to discuss the options for fertility preservation. Radiation exposure can result in impairment of tissue integrity and sometimes, leading to organs dysfunction, the impact of radiations on organs depends on site of irradiation, patient age and total radiation dose. Female patients who are treated with radiation have an increased rate of uterine dysfunction, ovaries dysfunction, impaired fertility, incidence of pregnancy complications, premature birth and miscarriage. Pre-pubertal uterus is more vulnerable to the effect of radiation, compared with the pubertal uterus due to arising ovarian estrogen production and uterus enlarges. To reduce the effects of radiations on female reproductive organ, fertility preservation procedures such as ovarian transposition, reproductive gland protection and oocyte cryopreservation should be carried out before and/or during radiotherapy.

Review: The Development of Infrared Radiation Applications in Medical Field

Qusay Khattab Omer Al-Dulamey

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 24-50
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.168661

The aim of the study is to demonstrate that infrared imaging can be used as a stand-alone phase in addition to health surveillance and medical evaluation. The advancement of infrared radiation techniques in the medical field in general, and breast cancer applications in particular, necessitates a review of this subject. The medical employ of thermography by infrared began in Germany shortly after 1950, where the single thermal picture of the individuals affected was shown long before (1928). Single Infrared radiation detectors were used at the outset. For a long time, thermal photography cameras soon taken from combat operations operation from low (thermal rather than spatial) resolution, and extraordinarily high product value. In addition, the decrease in laptop hardware value and software value putters. Since about 1980, better medical-suitable technology has been available hot thermocouple scale Fractional Preferential Attachment (FPA) processes have become more reachable, primarily LN2 cooled MCT scanners and then used widely after 2000, and have been widely used in medicine, despite some methodological concerns leading to medical misinterpretation. Individual medical thermal photography processes received certification in 2007, allowing them to be used as medical instruments for thermal measurement. Following European Health Regulations. Other instruments that do not have a CE health certificate are prohibited because photography is not allowed. Measurement functions that aren't used for temperature recording. Qualified medical infrared imaging can be used for a variety of purposes: rheumatology and orthopaedics, female breast region containing sensitive to thermal effort measures thermal radiation, neurology, cardiac photography (swing-libration vascular thrombosis), lab tests, surgical procedures, and completing body picturing.

Study the Effect of the Amount of Clouds on the Number of Actual Hours of Sunshine at Selected Stations in Iraq

Jawdet Hedayet Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-27
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167891

This research aims to study the effect of the amount of clouds on the number of actual hours of Sunshine in selected stations in Iraq, namely (Mosul Station, Baghdad Station, Basra Station), using data (the amount of clouds and the number of actual hours of Sunshine) for a period of (31 years) for the period extending from (1980 - 2010), which were obtained by data available in the Iraqi Meteorological organization and Seismology. In this research, the effect of the amount of clouds on the number of actual hours of Sunshine was clarified by studying the monthly and seasonal change of the two variables, in addition to clarifying the nature of the relationship between them by calculating the correlation coefficient using Microsoft Excel (2010). The results indicated that there is a strong inverse correlation between both variables in The three study stations, where the values ​​of correlation coefficients ranged between (-0.92) – (-0.87) in the study sites, and this indicates that with the increase in the amount of clouds the number of hours of actual hours of Sunshine decreases, and vice versa.

The Effect of Addition of (Al2O3) Nano Particles on Structural and Electrical Properties of Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10" +δ" Superconductors at High Temperature

Fouad Kamal Tawfeeq Alsumaidaei; Hussein Ali Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.167506

To enhancement the superconductor structural characteristics, nanoparticles of the Al2O3 were added to the samples under study. The Samples of high temperature superconductors 1-X (Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+ ) + X(Al2O3) with X= (0-0.9) were prepared by solid state reaction method under hydraulic pressure 8 ton/cm2 and annealing temperature 800 . Electrical properties of the samples showed that Tc increases from 126 K to 139 K, and also oxygen content in samples increased with increasing X values from 0 to 0.5, while Tc decreased less than 77 K with increasing X at values more than 0.5. In Structural properties, the X-ray diffraction of the samples showed orthorhombic phase with a=4.286A , b=5.4184A , c=35.3528A  at X=0, while c-value is increased to 35.9848A  at X=0.5. AFM results shows that the average grain size of the best sample was 47.67 nm at X=0.5. SEM it showed that there are dark regions related to the heavier elements, such as Bi and Cu, and light regions related to lighter elements, such as Ba and Ca, depending on atomic weights

Color Characterizations of Pure ZnO and ZnO/ SeO2 Thin Films Annealed at Different Temperature

Ali I. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 107-124
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167522

Pure Zinc oxide and ZnO/SeO2 oxide thin films were prepared successfully by sol gel method and annealed at different temperature under ambient condition. These films were characterized by means of XRD, AFM, and UV-visible. XRD patterns clearly showed the presence of crystalline ZnO/SeO2 particles, the ZnO/SeO2 film showed a good crystallinity like pure ZnO film, Optical transmittance spectra of films showed high transparency (>87%) in visible region. The color coordinate and tristimulus value of transmittance spectral showed that the best decolourization result was achieved at 7.5 at.% Se at 400oC, 600oC and 10 at.% Se at 500oC , for the best brightness result appeared at two point with 2.5 at.% Se at 600oC and 7.5 at.% Se at 400oC. AFM studies reveal that rms roughness of the thin films increased with the increasing of Se concentrations. Also, the surface roughness increased with the increasing of the annealed temperature.

Study Effect Treatment Thermal for Cermet Composite Prepared by Flame Thermal Spray Method.

S. H. Hameedi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 42-55
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167517

Flame thermal spraying technology was used in the production of 25% zirconia composite material with 25% alumina particle with binder material of 50% Al-Ni alloy base on 316L alloy steel base, after preparation the base surface with a method of roughing the granular. Spraying was carried out using a spray distance (12,14,16,18,20) cm. Hardness tests were carried out on the composite material to study the effect of changing spray distance on the properties of the resulting layer. The thermal treatment was performed on the samples at (850,950,1050,1150)  for an hour. The results of the tests confirmed that the best spraying distance (16 cm) and the thermal treatment (1050 ) have a significant effect on improving the hardness of the layers of the composite material.

Computational Study of the Effect of Adsorbed Lithium on Solid State Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Pristine and Boron Doped Graphene

Issa Zainalabdin Hassan; Sufian mohammed mohammed Alezzi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 19-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167516

Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising source of clean and renewable energy as an alternative for environment polluting fossil fuel resources. The safe and reasonable volumetric density storage represent the main problem facing the hydrogen technology. Most of the research nowadays are focusing on development of new technologies for solid state storage of hydrogen. At the present study, The adsorption of hydrogen molecule (H2) has been studied on the supercell (3 x 3 x 1) of pure graphene and doped graphene  with boron atom and adsorbed with lithium atom by first principle calculations with DFT method. We choice local density approximation (LDA) To describe the exchange-correlation energy between the interacting electrons and the basis set (Double Numerical Plus polarization DNP), the regions of a Brillion zone are set to (2 x 2 x 1). The binding energy of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on the surface of graphene adsorbed by the lithium atom was between (0.2-0.4 eV) and with a storage ratio (6.74 wt.%), Which meets the gravitational capacity standard specified by the energy department, And the binding energy of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on the surface of graphene adsorbed by the lithium atom and doped with the boron atom was between (0.23-0.32 eV) and with a storage ratio (6.67 wt.%), Thus meeting the standard for the final mass capacity (6.5 wt.%) Specified by the Department of Energy.  We conclude that the doping of the boron atom into one of the six graphene rings in the large unit cell (3 × 3 × 1) played a major role in increasing the stability of the graphene surface and reduce the binding energy that contributes to reducing the temperature of the hydrogen desorption process.

Identify Months of Comfort and Discomfort Using the Temperature-Humidity Index at Selected Stations in Iraq

jawdet hedayet Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 87-106
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167519

In this research, the months of comfort and discomfort were identified using the Temperature-Humidity Index in selected stations in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, Basra) using data of the temperature and relative humidity values of the period (1983-2019) obtained from the Iraqi Meteorological organization and Seismology. The results showed that the months of discomfort in the three study stations were (January, July, August, December), while the months of comfort in the three study stations were both (April, September), while the months (February, March, June, September, November) alternated between comfort and discomfort in the three study stations. This research also clarified the effect of both temperature and relative humidity on the values of the Temperature-Humidity Index by clarifying the nature of the relationship between them by calculating the coefficient of correlation using Microsoft Excel (2010), where the results showed a linear strong correlation between temperature and Temperature-Humidity Index values, where the values ​​of correlation coefficients ranged between (0.996) – (0.997), while the correlation was inversely strong between relative humidity and Temperature-Humidity Index values where the values ​​of correlation coefficients ranged between (-0.985) – (-0.959) in the study stations, this indicates that the increase in the value of temperature and decrease relative humidity leads to an increase in the values of the Temperature-Humidity Index, and vice versa.

Construction of New Coated Carbon Electrodes for Determination of Sildenafil Citrate Drug

Aveen K. Mohammed; Ali I. Khaleel; Nawzad N. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.2.1

In this research, new coated carbon electrodes were constructed and used for the determination of Sildenafil citrate (SILC) drug. The electrodes were constructed by preparing ion-pair for (SILC) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or phosphomolybdic (PMA) acid using   dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a plasticizer. These electrodes showed good sensitivity towards SILC with linear range of (1.0´10-7-1.0´10-2) M, correlation coefficient, (0.9990), the life time (120) days, optimum temperature range (23-65) oC and optimum pH range (2-5) for both electrodes, limit of detection (5.055´10-8 and 5.116´10-8) M, slope (57.29 and 59.10) mV/decadefor SILC-PTA and SILC-PMA electrodes respectively. These electrodes were successfully applied for determination of SILC in pure and pharmaceutical preparation form(tablets) with recovery of not less than 98%.

Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Promethazine- HCl in Pharmaceutical Formulation Based on Oxidative Coupling with the Reagent m-Amino Benzoic Acid in Presence of N-Bromosuccinimide.

Mohammad Salim Abdulaziz; Aseen N. Shareef; Mohsin Hamza Bakir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 236-256
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.14

An easy, rapid and sensitive novel spectrophotometric method for estimation of trace amounts of Promethazine-HCl in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on using the oxidative coupling reaction of Promethazine-HCl with m-amino benzoic acid reagent at pH1.2 in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide to produce an intense green color, water soluble, product which exhibit maximum absorbance at 592 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over concentration range of (2-26 µg/ml), with a Ԑ 9.754×〖10〗^3 l/mol.cm, Coefficient determination (R2=0.9991). Sandell̕s index of 0.03289 µg/cm^2, the average recovery is 100.396 %, RSD does not exceed 0.3096 %, LOD of 0.1949 µg/m1 and LOQ of 0.5905 µg/m1. The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of PMZH in its pharmaceutical formulations..

Synthesis and Identification of Some New Thiazole Derivatives which Derived from Pyrazoline Compounds and Evaluation the Antibacterial Activity of Some of them

Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi; Mohsin Omar Mohammed; Ghazwan Thamir Qasim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 46-62
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.4

In this study some new derivatives of thiazole compounds were successfully prepared in two steps with high yields. The first step included a synthesis of a new series of pyrazoline (1a-1i) using a one-pot three components reaction. The reaction between (acetophenone4-nitroacetophenone), different substituted benzaldehyde compounds and thiosemicarbazide in absolute ethanol as a solvent with heating at reflux provided the new series of pyrazoline derivatives in a short reaction times. In the second step, the pyrazoline compounds (1a-1i) refluxed with 4-bromophenacyl bromide in absolute ethanol to produce thiazole compounds (2a-2i) in high yields. The Infra-red technique (FT-IR) was used to identify the synthesised compounds and the proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique (1H-NMR) was used to identify som of them. .

Preparation and Study the Effect of Nano Zinc Oxide Particles Upon Some Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Resin

Kadhim N. Abed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 109-130
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.7

Nanoparticles of zinc oxide are prepared by three different chemical methods. The first one includes mixing of zinc nitrate (hexa – H2O) with solution of sodium hydroxide (0.4N) at a ratio of (2:1) (sampleN1). In the second method, ammonium bicarbonate solution mixed with zinc sulfate (0.2M) at a ratio of (1:2) (sampleN2). The third method includes mixing of zinc nitrate (hexa – H2O) with sodium hydroxide (0.6N) at a ratio of (2:1) (sampleN3), were solution of starch added as fixing agent for nanoparticles. The nanoparticles examined by X– ray diffraction technique. in addition to transmission electronic microscope to determine the volume of nanoparticles. Composites are prepared by mixing nanoparticles of zinc oxide with epoxy resin. Mechanical properties measurement showed that the hardness value of the sample (EP+N3) was (103.38) due to Shore is better than the values of the other prepared samples (EP, EP+N2, EP+N1). Also, the composite (EP+N3) showed good compressive strength which was (163.71 MPa). The value of thermal conductivity of the mentioned composite was (6.41W m-1 0K-1) which indicates good thermal properties. However, the study showed that the Epoxy resin has a good response to form important composites with zinc oxide nanoparticles..

Preparation of A Catalyst Used in Hydrogenation Processes

Ali Omairi Mohammad; Thaer Abd Hallo; Farah Kh. H. Al-juboory

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 206-216
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.12

In this paper, the preparation of nickel catalyst supported on gamma alumina with high surface area was done; nickel sulphate was used as a source of nickel. Impregnation method was used in the preparation with two-stage, as it is known cannot use this method to prepare catalysts with a high content of metal Despite the ease and simplicity of it, so the solution is fragmented into two parts and download each part separately. Nickel content was measured in solution by atomic absorption device as well as the comparison was made between the prepared catalyst and commercial catalyst by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray deflection (XRD). (XRD) .

Evaluation of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase and Some Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Hepatitis.

Raghad Ab. Mohammad; Mafaz K. Saeed; Wasan K. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 21-32
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.3.3

This research was concerned with a study of the relationship between sorbitol dehydrogenase and hepatitis disease . Blood samples have been drawn from (35) patients with hepatitis and (28) blood samples of healthy as control group ages ranges from (40-65) years. Patients were collected from Al-Salam Hospital in Mosul City under the supervision of specialists Live in Mosul city. Sorbitol dehydrogenase, total serum bilirubin, protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransferase sGPT were measured in blood of these patients. The results showed a significant increase in sorbitol dehydrogenase, sGPT, bilirubin, total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels compared with the control group. There was also study of the relationship between (SDH) activity and the studied parameters in patient group and finding that there are liner correlation coefficient. the results indicated that, there was a positive significant correlation between the activity of enzyme and each of the total protein, albumin, globulin, sGPT, and bilirubin and negative significant corolation between SDH and globulin..

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation Antibacterial Activity of Some Schiff Bases and (1,3-Oxazepine or Diazepine-4,7-Dione)

Saad Salim Jasim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 249-272
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.15

In this study, some of Schiff bases, 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione and 1,3-diazepine-4,7-dione compounds derived from terephthalaldehyde and substituted aniline have been prepared, Schiff bases (a1-5) which derived from terephthalaldehyde and substituted aniline have been reacted with maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride to produce 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione compounds (b1-10). 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione compounds (b1-10) have been reacted with phenyl hydrazine to produce 1,3-diazepine-4,7-dione compounds (c1-10). The prepared compounds were characterized using physical methods, the precise analysis of elements (C.H.N), infrared (IR) and (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The reactions were monitored by. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The antibacterial activity was evaluated for some of the synthesis compounds.ً.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Atenolol Using Indigo Carmine Dye

Basima A. A. Saleem

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 19-35
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.2

A simple, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of atenolol in both pure form and in its pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of atenolol with chromate in acidic medium of 1N H2SO4, the residual amount of oxidizing agent is then reacted with indigo carmine dye in the presence of oxalate as a catalyst, the increase in the absorbance of the dye, which is proportional to the amount of the determinants atenolol is then measured at 610 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 30-1500 µg/25 ml with a molar absorptivity of 0.73×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.364 μg.cm-2, and a relative standard deviation of ± 0.263 to ± 0.376% depending on the concentration level. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.3259 and 1.0863 μg ml−1, respectively. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of atenolol in pure and pharmaceutical preparation..

Spectrophotometric Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Oxidative Coupling.

Mohammad Salim Abdulaziz; Mohsin Hamza Bakir; Aseen N. Shareef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 98-124
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.7

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Promethazine hydrochloric in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on using the oxidative coupling reaction of promethazine hydrochloride with 4-amino 2-hydroxy benzoate reagent in acid medium in the presence of N-bromo Succinimide to produce an intense green colour, water soluble, product which exhibit maximum absorbance at 605.5 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over concentration range of (2-32µg/m1), with a molar absorptivity 7540.68 l/mol.cm, Sandel index of 0.04255 µg /cm^2.The average recovery is 100.7703 %, relative standard deviation of 0.3101 to 0.8474 % and D.L of 0.40825 µg/ml..

Study of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Adsorption of Azo Dyes on Different Adsorbent Surfaces

Faiz Mohsen Al-abady; Nashwan O. Tapabashi; Afnan Najdat Bahjat

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 273-296
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.16

The kinetics and thermodynamics of the removal of Alzarin yellow and Congo red dyes from their aqueous solutions using local clay taken from Shoraw region northwest of the province of Kirkuk - Iraq as well as bentonite and activated charcoal as adsorbents was held, using UV- visible spectroscopy to follow the adsorption process. The equilibrium time of the adsorption process was determined and found that it reached a state of equilibrium in a period of time between 70-50 min, in the case of adsorption of the dyes on the activated charcoal and bentonite surfaces and 70-60 min, when using the clay. The results indicated that the best weight of the adsorbent surfaces is (0.1gm). Adsorption was studied in the natural pH of the basic dyes, as well as in the acidic and neutral pH. Isotherm (Freundlich and Langmuir) was used, and it was found that the best isotherm is Freundlich. Adsorption efficiency was calculated in the range of 15-65 oC of temperature. It was found that the adsorption efficiency decreased by increasing the temperature in the case of alizarin yellow dye adsorption on the three surfaces. Whereas the adsorption efficiency of Congo red on the clay surface decreased by increasing the temperature and this indicates that the reaction is exothermic. It has been found that the efficiency of adsorption is increased by increasing the temperature in the case of adsorption of Congo red dye on activated charcoal and bentonite surfaces and this indicates that the reaction is endothermic. The values of the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process and the adsorption kinetics study were calculated and found that the adsorption follows the pseudo- second order equation..

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite Nanoparticles and the Effect of [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4].2H2O complex on its magnetic properties

Ahmed Raoof; Mustafa A. Alheety; Luma Jassim; Anwar Adil

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 86-96
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.7

A novel inorganic complex (shell)@metal oxide (core) was demonstrated by simple and highly efficient synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) coated by [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4] .2H2O complex through one-pot reaction of prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles and [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4].2H2O. The Fe3O4 NPs structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) while the resulted [Fe(sac)4(H2O)2]@Fe3O4NPs was characterized using IR spectroscopy and XRD. The magnetic feature, which is one of physical properties of Fe3O4NPs and the newly synthesized core-shell [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4]@Fe3O4NPs were examined in order to study how the Fe in its complex effects on the magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles.

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An Experimental Study on the Bubble Column Performance of Two Phases

Moayad Khalil Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 205-223
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.14

Bubble columns are form commend industrial instruments which is widely used in factorial petrochemical and biochemical aspects especially in absorption and reactions between gas and the liquid. The study aimed to study the effects of both the superficial gas velocity for ranges (15- 2.24) ×〖10〗^(-2) m /s and pressure ranges for (0.5-2) kg/ cm2 and diameter holes (1,2,2.5) mm in gas distributor from perforated plate for electrolytic solutions (0.05 N NaCl, 0.02 N CaCl2, 0.1 N Na2SO4 ) to volume percentage for holden gas in solution and mass transfer coefficient ratio. The experimental device was used on the bubble column length (2m) diameter (0.2) m and thickness (0.01) m.
The study result show that high volumetric percent at concentration (0.02 N CaCl2 ) was (7.65) due to its dependence on superficial gas velocity while the higher volume holdup gas in solution at concentration( 0.05 N Nacl) was (7.96) because of higher pressure which cause in decreasing the mass transfer coefficient ratio which is increase with the gas superficial surface in solution at concentration level ( 0.1 N Na2SO4 ) and the is occur due to bubble volume is higher when pressure increase.
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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Azo and Azo-Schiff Compounds

Hadi N. Azeez; Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi; Nashwan O. Tapabashi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 97-119
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.8

Abstract
This work involves the preparation of some new azo and azo-Schiff compounds derived from benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and diamines (1, 5-diaminonaphthalene, and thiocarbohydrazide). Azo compounds of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene have been prepared using different solvents to enhance the miscibility of the polar aqueous solution of the diazonium salt and the slightly polar benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene. The Schiff’s bases have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of carbonyl compound with the diamines. FT-IR has been used to identify the prepared compounds, whereas 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR were used to identify some others.
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Measuring the Effectiveness of Glucose-6-Phosphatase Dehydrogenase G6PD and Compare it with Some Variables Biochemical in Blood Tests in Children with Macular Degeneration

Ahmed Sh. A. Al-Doori; Wasan N. H. Al-Assi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 209-220
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.3.15

The study includes measuring of some blood variables, measuring the level of the effectiveness of the enzyme G6PD quantitatively and studying the different relations between them in the blood of children with the disease of the rest of the children's hospital in Kirkuk in the center of Kirkuk province. The study includes (60) children age group (1-10) years (46) males and (14) female, in addition to (30) healthy children of the same age group as control group (21) male and (9) female. The results show a significant decrease in the level of efficacy of G6PD in children with bacillus disease compared to healthy (2.75 ± 5.04) IU / G at the probability level (P00.01). The healthy people reach (1.5 ± 12.49) IU The results show that children with G6PD deficiency have significantly lower levels (1P00.0) in Hb, RBC, and PCV, with a concentration of 1.40 ± 0.30 g / 100 ml, 1012 * (1.03 ± 3.77) for each liter, (8.36 ± 31.08%), respectively, whereas in the healthy, the concentration is 1.5 ± 12.49 (IU / g), 1.22 ± 12.23 g / 100 ml, 1012 * (0.445 ± 4.476) per liter, (3.66 ± 35.90%), respectively. (P = .01) in the white blood cell count as compared to healthy patients, with a level of 109 (3.96 ± 10.63) per liter. In the healthy, it is 109 * (2.3 ± 8.88) L. .

Green Chemistry Synthesis of Five-Membered Heterocylic Derivatives (1, 3, 4-oxadizoles) by Using Grinding Technique

Nihad Ismael Taha; Eehab Malik Rasheed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 109-125
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.164237

In this research we prepared about 28 derivatives of five-membered heterocyclic compounds (1,3,4-oxadizoles) in two lines , in the first line we used phenylhydrazide and in the second line we used 4-hydroxy phenylhydrazide as starting material for cyclization, By using eco–friendly efficient synthesis of oxadiazole derivatives through the reaction of aromatic hydrazide with different substituted aromatic aldehydes by grinding them in the presence of catalytical amounts of iodine.

Synthesis and Identification of some (pyrazole, pyridine-2-one, indazole and isoquinol-3-one) Compounds which derived from Chalcone and Evaluation of their Antibacterial

Saad Salim Jasim; Mohammed Ghazei AbdulKareem; Mohammed Faisal Ghazei

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 310-336
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.3.22

In this study, some of (pyrazole, pyridine-2-one, indazole and isoquinol-3-one), compounds have been prepared which derived from the chalcone compounds. The chalcone compounds have been prepared by reaction of cyclohexanone with substituted benzaldehyde (1-5)and with cinnamaldehyde(6,7) and acetanilide with terephthalaldehyde(8-13) in base medium, the resulting chalcones reacted with succinohydrazide using ethanol as a solvent to produce substituted pyrazole (14-17) and using DMSO as a solvent to produce indazole (22-28). also the chalcones reacted with substituted acetanalide using benzene as a solvent to produce pyridine-2-one (18-21) in base medium and using methanol as a solvent to produce substituted isoquinol-3-one (22-35). The prepared compounds were characterized using physical methods, the precise analysis of elements (C.H.N), infrared IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity were evaluated of these compounds also. .

Synthesis and Characterization of Pd(II) And Pt(II) Complexes with Bis [Hg (2-Apt)] Compound.

Beriwan Mohamad Hamad Ameen; Hikmat Ali Mohamad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 12-22
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.3.2

The reaction of one mole of Hg(II) acetate with two mole of 2-amino thiophenol gave one mole of [Hg(2-apt)] compound. While the reaction of one mole of [Hg(2-apt)] with two moles of MCL2 salt. Produced new complexes in general formula [M2{Hg(2-apt)Cl4] where M=Pt(II) or Pd(II).All the prepared complexes were identified using FT-IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR,elemental analyses (CHNS) and molar conductivity. The results exhibited that metal bounded to the ligand via S and N in squar planer geometries..

Synthesis, Characterization and Biohydrolysis Drug Release Studies of Polymercarrier with Ketoprofen.

Hala M. G. Alzahawi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.3.1

In the present work, the hydroxyl groups of starch polymers bonds with bioactive material (Ketoprofen drug) by esterification process. (direct esterification and indirect esterification). The modified starch polymers are characterized by some spectroscopic methods such as FTIR ,UV, H1. NMR and C13.NMR. The degree of substitution (D.S) of the hydroxyl groups in starch molecule was determined in all cases. The hydrolysis of modified starch polymers is carried out in the heterogeneous phase in a buffer solution of pH (2.0 , 7.0 and 9.0 ) at various temperatures (25, 37, and 45 Co). The amounts of released Ketoprofen drugs were quantitatively determined by using calibration curve method. Biodegradation (in vitro degradation) of modification starch polymers is carried out by enzymatic cleavage (using lipase enzyme) at pH 2.0 and 37Co. The amounts of released ketoprofen were quantitatively determined by U.V visible spectrophotometry by using the usual calibration curve method. In general, it was found that the release in presence of enzyme was faster than in hydrolysis process..

Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Oxidative Coupling reaction.

Sunbul Mustafa Anwar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 23-36
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.3.3

An easy and simple spectrophotometric method was described for estimating chlorpromazine Hydrochloride drug in aqueous solution. Where The method was adopted on oxidative coupling reaction of the drug with p- nitro aniline in the presence of ceric(IV) ammonium nitrate and hydrochloric acid solution an orange-brown product dye was obtainded with maximum absorption at 525 nm. with moler absorptivity of 9.24×103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and sandell's sensitivity of 0.0385 µg.cm-2 Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of (12-46) µg.ml-1. The method was applied successfully for the estimating the drug it's on pure condition or in pharmaceutical preparations (Largactil drug).).