Main Subjects : Biology

Evaluation of the Efficiency of some Methods in Biological Control of Phlebotomus Papatasi (Diptera:Psychoididae).

Rabah Hassan Saady

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.136011.1075

The research  studies the biological efficiency of the fungus Verticillium lacanii and the alcoholic extract leaves  Nerium sp Capparis sp and Lawsonia sp against  fourth larval instar and adults of male and female  Phlebotomus papatasi. The study was conducted at the  laboratory condition at a temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity. 65 ± 5% and a period of illumination of 12 hours / day . The suspension of Verticillium lacanii at a concentration of 1×810 spores / ml gave the highest mortality 86.74% for the fourth larval instar after 24 hours of treatment, while the suspension of Verticillium lacanii at concentration of 1×810 spores / ml gave the highest mortality  of 78.16% for the male  Phlebotomus papatasi after after 24 hours of treatment, the suspension of Verticillium lacanii at a concentration of 1 x 810 spores/ml gave the highest mortality rate of 46.75 % for female  after 24 treatment. Alcoholic extract of Capparis gave  highest mortality 89.57.% for the fourth larval instar, 76.18% for males, and 87.71% for the female  Phlebotomus papatasi after 24 hours at concentration 0.07 mg/l . The alcoholic extract of Lawsonia sp showed the lowest mortality was 43.01 % for the fourth larval instar, 29.21% for males, 31.86% for female sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi after 24 hours of treatment at concentration 0.01 mg/l respectively.    

Isolation and Diagnosis Intestinal Helminthes from Stray Dogs in Kirkuk

Husain F. Hassan; Sabreen Y. Gaieb

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.130604.1035

In the present study 30 stray dogs were collected, dissected and diagnosed in order to recognition on intestinal parasitic helminthes.
The results demonstrated that 50% of total 30 stray dogs were found to be infected with intestinal parasitic helminthes. These includes three species of trematodes Heterophyes (6.6%), Mesostephanus (6.6%) and Prohemistomum (6.6%), three species of cestodes Dipylidium caninum (40%), Echinococcus granulosus (6.6%) and Taenia taeniaformis (13.3%), and three species of nematodes, Ancylostoma (20%), Dirofilaria immitis (6.6%) and Toxocara canis (6.6%).
Three species of trematodes (Heterophyes, Mesostephanus and Prohenistomum) and one adult nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis) were isolated for the first time from stray dogs in Iraq.

Effect of Exposure to Cement Dust of Residents in Vicinity of Kirkuk Cement Factory on Kidney Parameters

Sanaa Mohammed Morshed; Abed Ahmed Aredni; Layla Abd AL-Sattar Sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.135869.1071

The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of Kirkuk cement factory dust on renal function tests among the residents of villages and farms surrounding the factory and those who are constantly exposed to cement dust, which include: urea, uric acid, creatinine and total serum protein for the period from January 2021 to April 2021. The samples were randomly collected (60) samples from different distances as the study group, which were divided according to the distance from the factory into six categories D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, while the control group was (30) samples for the last category, Laylan D7 area, and their average age ranged from (10-70) years, venous blood was drawn (5) ml of blood, serum was separated by common methods of separation, and renal function tests were performed on it.
The results showed that the studied groups recorded a significant increase in the concentration of urea, uric acid, creatinine and total serum protein in the blood serum at the level of P≤0.01 compared to the control group.

Biodegradation of Food Waste by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Microorganisms in Duhok city

Adel Omar Ahmad; Hussein Ali Sadeq; Yousif Abdullah Albany; Mohammad Ismail Al-Berfkani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.136291.1079

Garbage kitchen waste has been considered as one of the most difficult global issues with negative effect on the environment and health. It contains high amounts of cellulose and other organic waste which become ideal environments for the growth of pathogenic microbes and their toxic products which may reach agricultural land and water system. As a compromise, certain microbes are implemented under certain conditions to reduce and manage food waste. In the present study microorganism isolated from garbage kitchen waste collected in Duhok city. one thermophilic bacterium, two mesophilic bacteria, and fungus. All isolates were identified to the genus level and verified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. The findings show that two mesophilic bacteria were fungus from the genera Mucor and Rhizopus, one was a bacterium from the family Staphylococci, and one was a thermophilic Bacillus species. The enzyme activities of the isolates were estimated and revealed that Bacillus spp. has cellulase, protease and catalase activity while Staphylococcus spp. has only protease and catalase activity. Mucor and Rhizopus spp. have only cellulase and catalase activity. To estimate the level of garbage degradation. The level of garbage degradation was estimated by tacking the weight of the sample before and after degradation as well as detecting the content of protein and carbohydrate by using Folin Lowry and di-nitro salicyclic acid, phenol sulphuric acid method. The comparative study showed that both mesophilic (Mucor) and thermophilic microorganisms (Bacillus) showed the best degrader compared with Staphylococcus and Rhizopus.

Gastroduodenal endoscopic findings and Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among suspected individuals

Amal Jamil Al-barwary; Hogir Mohammed Saadi; Wasan Mohammed Salih; Ahmed Jumaa Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.134928.1068

The peptic ulcer was developed at appeared recently as a contagious disease, distributed all over the world and the most common cause of this disease is H.pylori. Laboratory diagnosis was used to detect this bacterium by several methods which include invasive and non-invasive methods. . ELISA technique was used to identify IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against H. Pylori. All participants underwent endoscopic procedures at the Duhok City/Azadi Hospital/Endoscopy Center, and a highly skilled endoscopist carried out the procedures, As well questionnaire form has been filled out through the interview with the participants to enroll the socio-demographic factors which include occupation, history of treatment, and endoscopic findings. Among the 90 participants, the serological prevalence is 72%, 7%, and 30% of positive antibodies IgG, IgM, and IgA respectively. The housewife group recorded a high percentage of positive IgG whereas low percentages were recorded for the military group. A significant immune reaction of IgG in the student group has been noted. In addition to the housewife group to the positive IgM. The effect of those who had treatment previously has been revealed by positive IgG. Moreover, antral gastritis had a significant relationship with positive IgG by using ELISA. in the conclusion, the Housewives group was more infected with this bacterium, and a significant association was found between antral gastritis and seropositive IgG .

Isolation and Diagnosis of Intestinal Helminthes from Stray Cats in Kirkuk City

sabreen Y. Gaieb; Husain F. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 36-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.130586.1034

In the present study 25 stray cats were collected and dissected in order to identify and diagnose the intestinal parasitic helminthes. The results of the study demonstrated the infection of all stray cats with one or more parasitic helmithes. The identified helminthes belonged to: three species of trematodes which were Echinochasmus sp. (4%), Heterophyes sp. (4%) and Prohemistomum  sp. (4%), four species of cestodes which were Diplopylidium sp. (24%), Dipylidium caninum 48%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei sp. (16%) and Taenia taeniaformis (12%), and  three species of nematodes which were  Physaloptera preputalis (4%), Toxocara cati (8%) and Toxoascaris leonina (8%). Three species of trematodes (Echinochasmus, Heterophyes, Prohemistomum) were isolated for the first time from stray cats in Iraq.

Evaluation of Genetic Variability between Local White Chicken and Commercial Lines by RAPD-PCR and Sequencing of 18s rRNA Gene

Hemin Hussein Ali; Dilger Maghded Khdr; Aram M. Ahmed; Shirkoo Ameen Fateh Salai; Rozhgar A. Khailany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.174517

The present study investigated and identified genetic diversity between native White chicken lines and two commercial Broiler (Rose) and Layer (Isa Brown) chicken breeds using RAPD markers and a sequencing technique. All primers applied produced 151 scorable bands with percentage polymorphic loci of 54.93 % within chicken populations, as per the results of the RAPD marker. The maximum amplified fragment by primer OPC-11 was 22 and the fewest by primer OPAA-03 was 7. For all loci analyzed, the effective number of alleles (ne), means the observed number of alleles (na), Shannon's information index (I), and gene diversity (h) was 1.4394, 1.5493, 0.3496, and 0.2441, respectively. The presence of a high number of polymorphisms and targeted (71) loci across all chicken populations indicates that RAPD-PCR techniques provide sufficient genetic distance and higher genetic variation among chicken populations. The highest identity of the blasted sequences of the 18srRNA gene of local white chicken is 90.41 % and 84.23 %. Likewise, a total of 46 and 27 nucleotides are altered with 27 and 10 gaps in both sequences for the first and second regions, respectively. According to both phylogenetic trees, the local white chicken had a stronger sense of individuality and was slightly closer to the commercial broiler breeds than the layer chicken breeds. As a result, it suggests that enhancing the local chicken line requires a broiler breeding program, as well as cross-breeding with other native chicken lines to obtain hereditarily significant new strains.


A review of the uses of the ketogenic diet

Qays Assi ahmed; Khalida Khalil Abdullah; Wurood Mohamed Mutar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.132824.1058

To reduce the health complications of obesity, safe therapies and effective weight loss processes must be identified with preventing weight regain at the same time.Humans have metabolic flexibility and the potential to utilise ketones as an energy source by reducing carbohydrate intake in the diet, this reduces insulin levels, and ketogenesis occurs . These conditions promote the release of excess stored fat, avoid muscle weakness, and improve insulin sensitivity. Losing weight by diet causes appetite feeling and a rise in ghrelin release , that raises the likelihood of regaining weight and is thus counterproductive to goals for weight reduction . A study's aim is to review evidence on a ketogenic diet for weight loss and metabolic illnesses like insulin resistance, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease development, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. We present a foundational understanding of dietary ketones and how they are formed.

Limnological Study in Upstream and Downstream Degala Basin Water Body within Erbil City-Iraq

Kwestan Hassan Sdiq; Layla Aladdin Mohamed Aladdin; Bakhtyar Abullah Othman; Sewgil Saaduldeen Anwer

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 16-29
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.131488.1046

The Degala Basin is one of the water reservoirs in the heart of the Degala sub-district, roughly 50 kilometers east of Erbil City. Samples were collected monthly from different sites of Degala Basin during October 2020 to August 2021 to determine physicochemical and biological properties EC, TDS, Chloride, Na, K, Ca hardness, total alkalinity, nitrate, and DO, pH, total hardness, Mg hardness, and Sulfate. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there were significant differences in physico-chemical parameters between the two sites, with high significant relationships for (EC, TDS, chloride, Na, K, Ca hardness, total alkalinity, nitrate, and DO) and low significant relationships for (pH, total hardness, Mg hardness, and Sulfate) at the (p≤0.05) for all parameters studied different algal species obtained from all sampling sites in Degala basin revealed the presence of a variety of algal species. There is small change in the pH value during the observation period among upstream, basin and downstream. Different genera of algae found in Degala basin.

Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on the Production of Some Enzymes in Proteus spp Isolated from Different Clinical Samples in Kirkuk city.

Salah salman Zain Alabdeen; Banan H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.169993

The study investigates the effects of pomegranate peel extracts on some virulence factors such as the production of some enzymes produced by Proteus spp isolated from different clinical samples. Among 310 different clinical samples, 48 isolates of proteus were obtained, 14 isolates (29.16%) were obtained from urine, 15 isolates (31.25%) were obtained from stool, 7 isolates (14.58%) from ear swabs, 4 isolates (8.33%) were obtained from wounds, 5 isolates (10.41% (from burns and 3 isolates) 6.25%) of the high cervical. The study showed that from 48 isolates of Proteus spp 25 isolates (52.08 %) identified as  P.mirabilis, 15 isolates (31.25% )of P. penerri, while 8 isolates of P. vulgaris were obtained with a percentage of (16.66%) and it was found that 18 isolates (72%) of P.mirabilis isolates were positive for the production of beta-lactamase enzyme, 24 isolates (96%) are positive for proteases and 14 isolates (56%) produced lipase, while 13 isolates from P. penerri (86.66%) produced beta-lactamases and proteases and 10 isolates (66.66%) produced lipase, also found that 5 isolates (62.5%) of P. vulgaris produced Beta-lactamase and all the isolates (100%) produced protease while 7 isolates (87.5%) produced lipase. It was found that the hot aqueous extract of pomegranate peels inhibited the production of beta-lactamase enzyme in 4 out of 7 isolates that produced this enzyme, while all tested isolates did not produce lipase by using extracts of pomegranate peel extracts. The isolates lost their ability to produce protease enzyme, except for two isolates that were not affected by extracts of pomegranate peel fruits.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Azo-Schiff Bases as Energy Rich Candidate Compounds Derived from 1, 5-Diaminoanthraquinone by Fusion Method

Nashwan Omar Tapabashi; Nihad Ismael Taha; Marwa N. El-Subeyhi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.168662

             This work, which can be considered as a complement to our previous studies concerning chemical energy storage systems developing programmed, proposes the synthesis of new azo-Schiff bases derived from 1, 5-diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) resulting in an improvement in their absorption spectra. Five new derivatives (An1-An5) were synthesized by gentle fusing of (1 mmol of DAAQ) with (2 mmol) of early prepared azo derivatives of 2-hydroxy benzaldyhde. Medium to good yield was recorded on applying this method. Microwave irradiation of the same mixtures led to decomposition of the starting azo materials whereas prolonged reflux in DMSO was unproductive.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Copper (II) Complexes with New Schiff Bases Ligands

Marwa Mahmoud Al-Mafrgy; Hassan Ahmed Mohammed; Halla Mohamed Alzahwi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 28-47
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167893

The present work include preparation of some transition metal complexes Cu(II) with Schiff base ligands L1 (benzylideneamino)pyrimidin-2(1H)-one) L, L2(Z)-4-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)pyrimidin-2(1H)-one) L2 and L3 4,4'-((1E,1'E)-pentane-2,4-diylidenebis(azanylylidene))bis(pyrimidin-2(1H)-one) (pdp). The ligands were prepared from condensation reaction of the benzaldehyde, Salicyaldehyde and Acetylacetone with cytosine respectively. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity; magnetic susceptibility measurements, NMR spectroscopy for ligand, electronic and infrared spectroscopy.
These complexes were classified into two classes:
1-[CuL1Cl2]  , [CuL2Cl2] ,  [CuL3Cl2
2-[Cu(L2)2Cl2] , [Cu(L2)2Cl2] , [Cu(L3)2Cl2]
 Low conductance value showed that all the prepared complexes are non – electrolyte and the magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic spectroscopy showed that all the prepared complexes of Type (1) have a square planar geometry for copper complexes, the complexes of Type (2) have an octahedral geometry.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Different Parasitic Groups from Some Species of Wild Birds in Daquq Distnet,Kirkuk Province

Maysaa Younis Ali; Husain F. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 91-110
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.168024

In the present study number(187) birds were collected, examined and dissected and the results revealed the presence of the following parasites:
Parasitic protozoa: The Pterocles olchata and Columba Livia were found infected with Haemoproteus and this protozoa was recorded for the first time in Ptercle olchata.Plasmodium was found in blood of Cotunix coturnix and the Eimeria was found in Cotunix coturnix and pterocles olchata whereas Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found in Ptercles olchata and Mergus serrator. Cestoda: The genus Metadilepis and genus Cotugina were found in Columba livia and Mergus serrator, respectively. Nematode: The genus Ascarida hermaphrodite was found in Columba livia and Mergus serrator whereas genus Acuaria laticepiا was found in Sturnus vulgaris. Lice:  Columbicola columbae and Companulotez compare were found in Columba livia whereas (Laemobothrion maximum, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus and Degeeriella leucopleura were found in Aquila chrysaetos. These louse species were new recods in lraq.     

Protozoa and Helminth Parasitic Fauna of Wild Animals in Daquq District, Kirkuk Province, Iraq.

Maysaa Younis Ali; Husain F. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.168023

In the current study, a number of wild animals were collected, examined, and dissected, and the following types of parasites were found:
The parasitic protozoan: the genus Haemoproteus, and this is the first record of this genus in the lizard Uromastyx loricata. The genus Eimeria was found in the rabbit Lepus capensis and the turtle Mauremys caspica, while Entamoeba was found in the pig Sus sucrofa.
The tapeworm’s genus Anoplocephala in hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus, which is a "new" host for this worm, while three genera were isolated for the first time from the fox, Vulpes vuIpes which are Fossor angertrudae, Pericapsifer pagenstecheri, and Cycloskrjabinia taborensis. The nematode genera Rhaphidascaris acus and Cosmocerca trispinosa were found in the turtle Mauremys caspica. The Acanthocephalas theGenus AcanthocephaIa was isolated from the hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus for the first time.                                        

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Schiff Bases Derived from Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Evaluating The Biological Activity of Some of these Derivatives

Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi; Moneer Khadhim Muhsin; Marwan Ahmed Jassim Ahmed Jassim Shahir Al-Salami

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 56-86
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167518

This study included the synthesis of O-carboxymethyl chitosan which contains amine group attached directly to its glucose unit from the well-known natural polymer (chitosan), which in turn was reacted with some aromatic aldehydes containing o- and p- substituents to prepare a series of Schiff bases compounds. The used aldehydes were; p-boromobenzaldehyde, o-hydroxybenzaldehyde, o-bromobenzaldehyde, p-chlorobenzaldehyde, and p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques including FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The thermal stability of some of the prepared compounds was checked using differential thermaogravimetric analysis DTA. Finally, the biological activity of two Schiff bases was measured against two types of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and (Staphylococcus aureus) in terms of inhibition rate.