Keywords : Iraq

Epidemiological Survey on Stray Dogs and Cats Gastro-Intestinal Parasites in Kirkuk province, Iraq

Husain F. Hassan; Abdul Kadir R. A. Barzinji

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 228-238
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.143035

Gastro-intestinal parasites (GIPs) of stray dogs and cats play an epidemiological critical role, and also play a major role in transmitting through contamination of soil, food and/or drinking water with GIPs faecals. The objective of this study was to screening the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats in Kirkuk province, Iraq.
Fresh faecal specimens (n=125) of stray dogs and cats were collected during 15th February 2015 till 15th February 2016 from different regions of Kirkuk province. The experimental processing were carried out within 24 h.s using flotation techniques, and stained using Ziehl–Neelsen, trichrome and iodine staining technique protocols.
The overall significant prevalence of GIPs among stray dogs (n=77) was 84.42%, these were Toxocara canis (25.98%), Diphylobotherium latum (23.38%), Isospora spp. (20.78%), Dipylidium caninum (16.88%), Taenia hydatigera (14.29%), Echinicoccus spp. (6.49%), Mesocestoides spp. (6.49%), Cryptosporidium spp. (6.49%), Ancylostoma caninum (2.59%) and Stongyloides sp. (1.3%). Of 48 stray cats faecal specimens subjected to the present study, 77.08% were positive for GIPs significantly, including Toxocara cati (39.58%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (22.92%), Taenia taeniaeformis (14.58%), Toxascaris leonina (6.25%), Diphylobotherium latum (6.25%), Cryptosporidium spp. (27.08%), Isospora spp. (10.41%) and Toxoplasma gondii (8.33%(.
Among infected stray dogs Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum are the commonest GIPs in the present study. While, Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme are the most prevalence among stray cats in Kirkuk province.
Among infected stray dogs Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum are the commonest GIPs in the present study. While, Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme are the most prevalence among stray cats in Kirkuk province.

Mining Design System for Exploitation of Fat’ha Formation(M. Miocene) in Makhul Anticline, IRAQ

Ghazi Atiya Zarraq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 353-382
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132378

This study deals with the emphasis on the economic value of Makhul Anticline rocks in Mid-Region of Iraq, and it includes a mining design system suitable and profitable to exploit these raw materials. Here, the recommendation is to use and apply the open pit bench mining to extract the rock beds because of thin overburden, and the waste materials which cannot be dumped inside the excavation site. The rock beds which are outcropped dipping on both sides of the anticline flanks have irregular topography. Development of the mine is usually quite simple. Enough overburden should be removed to expose sufficient rock beds for production and construction of new access roads. This kind of mine operation is worked on one side of flank sequentially downwards in series of steps or benches whose height is usually determined by the machines selected and which are recommended in this study with the height of bench in range of (4 – 5) m, the sidewall angle in range of almost (18 – 20)° from the vertical and the bench or haul road width in range of (8 – 10)m.
Access to the bottom of the mine should be cut- across the benches down to the next step. The equipments recommended in this kind of exploitation are Front - End Loader, diesel powered, rubber – tiered shovel for loading broken rocks in Lorries, and Jack Hammer Poclaine machine for Digging and breaking rocks. The mining operation become more profitable and economic when the whole rock beds of different types are extracted all together for multifarious uses, and the use of the facilities available around the area, such as the paved main roads, railway crossing the area, main power line, Tigris river, cheap labors and different types of machinery are ready for use.

A new species of soft-winged flower beetles, MalachiusFabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera: Malachiidae) from Iraq

Banaz S. Abdulla; Hozan Q. Hammamurad; Prof. Dr. Nabeel A. Mawlood

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.124906

A new species of soft-winged flower beetles, Malachiusraniansis sp. described and illustrated from Iraq. Distinctive characteristics for this species are Mandibles bidental; Antenna serrate,11th segment tubular shaped 1.2 times as long as 10th segment . Apical part of adeagus nearly tubular, basalcylindrical shaped.

A New species of comb-clawed beetles Cteniopus Solier, 1835 (Coleoptera: Alleculidae) from Erbil Governorate Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Nabeel A. Mawlood; Gazang T. Omar; Hazim S. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2016, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2016.124742

A new species of comb-clawed beetles, Cteniopus erbilensis sp. nov. from Erbil governorate Kurdistan region-Iraq was described and illustrated .
The important taxonomic features have been drawn. Locality, host plant and date of the collection have been mentioned.

Taxonomic study of Brachynema virens (Klug, 1845) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Kurdistan region - raq.

Nabeel A. Mawlood; Banaz S.Abdulla; Mudhafar I. Hamad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2016, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 131-137
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2016.124405

This study deals with taxonomy of Brachynema virens(Klug, 1845)which collected from different localities of Kurdistan region-Iraq, including Erbil, Suleimanya and Duhok Governorates from the mid of April to the end of August2014.Some important parts ,metathorax scent gland, male and female genitalia have been illustrated and drawn .The results showed that the evaporatoria metathoracic scent gland well defined ;pygophore slightly longer than broad; paramere somewhat T-shaped; Spermathecal bulb round, without finger-like processes.Localities, date of collection and host plants were mentioned.

Study of the Spatial and Temporal Variation of wind velocity in Selected Stations in Iraq

Jawdet H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 373-392
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.124093

The wind is one of the climatic elements that has most important relationship with many human activities and explain the climatic conditions for any region, hence the most hourly and daily weather changes occurs because the variation the wind.
In this research study of the spatial and temporal variation of wind velocity in selected stations from Iraq ( Mosul, Baghdad و Basra, Diwaniyah ) through the use of data of wind velocity for the period ( 1980 – 2009 ), which was obtained from the Iraqi Meteorological and Seismology Organization.
Results have shown that the wind velocity increases in the Summer season of the year compared with the Winter season, the results also indicated that the wind velocity in the northern station ( Mosul ) is less than that recorded velocity in the middle station(Baghdad)

Petrogenesis of metabasalt rocks in the Bulfat complex, Kurdistan region, Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone

Sarmad A. Ali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 242-252
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.104996

Metabasaltes are exposed in the Bulfat complex north of Qaladeza that is a part of the Northwestern Zagros Suture Zone (NZSZ).Petrographic and geochemical study of metabasaltes have been conducted in order to provide insights into the origin and evolution of magmatism found at Neotethyian subducted plate margins and to determine their protolith nature and geodynamic setting. The whole rock chemistry indicates basalt to andesite composition for the metabasaltes. The geochemical investigation strongly suggests that the metabasaltes are derived from calic alkaline basalt and were emplaced in arc tectonic setting.

Malnutrition in relation to some intestinal parasitic infection in children of Kirkuk city-Iraq

Hiro M. Obaid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 191-205
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.102011

Malnutrition and infection with intestinal parasites are widespread inalmost all developing countries,high rate of people in the world are infectedwith protozoal and helminthes parasites. Most of cases areasymptomatic but some intestinal parasites can cause severediarrhea and malnutrition problems.Four hundred and thirty children (257 male and 173 female) whom attended the parasitology section of Kirkuk General Pediatric and Azady Teaching Hospitals, were chosen for this study. Their ages were < 1-12 years. The weight and the height of each children were recorded. Stool samples were taken from them and examined microscopically for parasitic finding. The frequency of malnutrition was significantly moreinmales (29.9%)than in females (15.6%). The most age group which were more malnourished in both males and females were 8-11years. Although the number of inpatients (336) was higher than outpatients (94), but malnutrition showed no significant differences between them. The total malnourished children were 24%. Mostof the normal malnourished children had body mass index (BMI) range of 13-16.9, while most of themoderate malnourished had BMIrange of 13-14.9 and the sever malnourished BMI were 8-12.9.The most prevalent parasite in both sexes were Entamoeba histolytica followed by Giardialamblia, Hymenolepisnana, Enterobiusvermicularis and Cryptosporidiumparvum, and the lowest rate was for Ascaris lumbricoides. The most malnourished children were infected C. parvum with a rate of 60%, followed by E. histolytica and G. lamblia with rate of 18.7, 10.4% respectively, no malnutrition degree were noted with other parasites.Asignificantly high rate of malnourished children had parasitic infection (30%)comparing with the total malnourished number (104).Diarrhea was significantly related with malnutrition degree and with parasites. 60% of the total moderately malnourished children had diarrhea and 84% of them had parasite with diarrhea, while in the total sever malnourished children, 87% had diarrhea and 100% had parasitic infection with diarrhea.

Geology and geochemistry of the Jurassic carbonate hosted barite deposits, Northeast Zakho, Iraq

Ali M.N. Al-Azzawi; Faraj H. Tobia; Adil A. Al-Kaaby

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 108-119
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.43123

Barite deposits located in Marsis locality of about 25km northeast of Zakho City were hosted in Jurassic dolomitic rocks. The barite is extending for about 6km and limited within about 38m thickness of dolomitic rocks. The thickness of the barite veins varies between few centimeters to 2.5m which increases downward. The major mode of occurrence of barite is as vein and cavity-filling. The barite and other minerals of vein and cavity-filling deposits are typical of suite precipitated from low-temperature hydrothermal solutions associated with igneous activity. Carbonate-hosted barite deposits contain 0.237% BaO, 103ppm Zn, and 83 ppm Pb. These rocks are deficit in Fe and F. Most of carbonate rocks are dolomitized, which provide appropriate physical and chemical conditions that permitted the passage of mineral-bearing fluids. These deposits are formed in carbonate platform setting and commonly developed in foreland thrust belt.

Determination of Natural Isotope and Radionuclide of Out Door High Dose Rate in Garmik Area-kurdistan Region NE-Iraq.

Kamal H. Kareem; Kamal O. Abdullah; Adel M. Hussein

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 88-105
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41639

Radioactive materials, containing high-count rate, are found in some areas in the world which have worldwide use as construction and facing material. The radiation doses, in the Garmik area, are about 268.6 nGy h-1, which are density population by residents of ten of villages and two towns.
The outdoor terrestrial gamma-ray background in some region of Garmik area was studied in order to determine the absorbed gamma dose rates of the soils and rocks. Gamma ray spectra have been recorded using the advance nuclear measurement system (digital spectroscopy analyzer DSA with NaI (TI) detector). This method is very suitable for measuring outdoor gamma radiation dose because the gamma count and human -radiation exposure will not be lost by the method by which the whole radiation exposure has been determined. A new equation has been formulated for this method. The total dose rates inside Sulaimani city was (42.873) nGy h-1 considered as a normal local outdoor dose rate (background).
The average values of outdoor dose rates of the studied samples, in Tatan, Hangazhal and Garmik areas have been found to be (226.1005, 257.477,322.541) nGy h-1 respectively. These values are nearly 6 times grater than the normal local outdoor dose rate of the background of Northeastern Iraq. The dose rate of each radioactive elements or isotopes have been determined for each spectrum of each mentioned area which are equal to 8.4554, 67.0995, 66.9057, 50.6143 nGy h-1 for Sulaimani city, Tatan, Hangazhal and Garmik respectively. The total rate of radionuclide is about 22.76% of total outdoor dose rate.

Optical Illusion and the Magnetic Hills in Koya Region (Kurdistan-Iraq)

Perykhan M.Jaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40794

A few of so-called magnetic hills that appear in some regions of Kurdistan-Iraq were studied.These kinds of hills are downhill but look like an uphill slope and have names like(Hunted Hill),(Magnetic Hill) or(Anti-gravity Hill)in literatures,reflecting attribution of the properties of the area as supernatural or magnetism. The gravity, magnetic field and the slope of the hills has been calculated.We investigated that no supernatural forces found at work in these places and the slope of these two hills are optical illusions produced by the local topography that makes a downhill to look like an uphill slope.

Climatic conditions effects on formation and development status of some soils in northern part of Iraq/Kurdistan region

Salim Neimat Aziz; Ahmed Saleh muhaimeed; Ibrahim M.Amin

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 70-86
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40806

Two biolit areas were selected within different climatic conditions in northern Iraq (Kurdistan region). Four pedons located in Ibraheemawa and five pedon in Salehaga areas. The two locationswere used for rain feed crop production. The two areas was covered with a detailed soil survey . Mapping units were obtained from Al-Agidi proposed soil classification at the series level for the Iraqi alluvial & zonal soils.Nine pedons representing the most extensive dominant soil series within the two locations were selected. A complete soil characterization was made for each soil series which include, PSD, ECe, Lime, O.M, active lime, PH, C.E.C, B.S.P, and C.E. to reveal their genesis (formations & development). Characterization was made preceded by morphological studies .The results show that a great effects of climatic conditions on the status of soil development reflected by horizons type , soil thickness and type of diagnostic horizons including surface and sub surface horizons . Also the results clearly showed the effects of climatic conditions on the amount and pattern of distribution for most soil components .The studied pedons at Ibrahimawa region were more developed than those at Salehaga region due to the difference in climatic conditions.

Hydrogeochemical properties of ground water in the vicinity of al-hawija plain se-Kirkuk, Iraq

Soran N. sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 28-40
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.47139

AL-Hawija plain is located at the south western part of Kirkuk city(N-IRAQ),with in the Hammrin-Makhul tectonic sub zone,the area is of simple topography with an average elevation of (360 m.a.s.l. ),having a semi-arid climate.Cultivation in the area depends on the rain water,and groundwater that has been extracted mainly from Miocene age,Pliocene fluvial sediments and recent deposits.The present study is mainly concerned with the evaluation of the quality of ground water to the different purposes.11ground water samples has been chemically analyzed from selected wells extracting water from different depths(80-120)m.and found that the ground water is of meteoric origin,very hard,having high PH values,while the values of total dissolved solids(TDS)are ranging between(1000-4500)mg/l,so that the water is of brackish type.on the basis of the major cation and anion concentration the groundwater is of(mixed Na and Ca-SO4) group having three families which are(Na2SO4)family with Na+>Ca+2>Mg+2-SO4-2>Cl->HCO3-and(CaSO4)water familyCa+2>Mg+2>Na+-SO4-2>Cl->HCO3-, and ( MgSO4 ) family with Mg+2 > Na+ > Ca+2-SO4-2 > Cl- > HCO3-. Generally the ground water in the area were not recommended for drinking purposes because of high salinity and it is(Doubtful to unsuitable-Unsuitable(for irrigation whereas it can be used to cultivate sensitive crops in areas of medium to coarse grained soil having a well designed drainage system beneath the agricultural.

A comparative study of Iodine content in the drinking water From Kirkuk and Nasrya Governments - Iraq

Hassan A.Al-Jumaily

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-54
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43543

The present study is concerned with quantitative analysis of Iodine in drinking water of Nasrya and Kirkuk areas by using amplification reaction s-spectrophotometer method. As a result of the differences in geological setting of both areas, an appreciable increase in Iodine relative to the stations at Nasrya comparison of stations at Kirkuk . The detail analytical data show a decrease in Iodine content during treatment of raw water at the pumping stations of both areas , where as comparison of analytical data points out higher Iodine content ( once and half times ) in drinking water at Nasrya relative to Kirkuk areas .The geographical location of Nasrya area nearby Al-Ahwar region , the sea source of the dominant local foods and the nature of the local soil in addition to higher Iodine content its drinking water, favor reduction in the IDD patients at Nasrya relative to Kirkuk areas . Such conclusion is confirmed by the available statistics of the numbers of IDD patients at both areas during (1985-1990), however , at later period (1991-1997) , this trend of statistics differs noticeably , as showing by the ratio of the number of patient at Nasrya to Kirkuk area ranged between (0.54 - 0.78) compared to ( 0.20 – 0.52 ) during previous period ( 1985 – 1990 ) . The present study discusses the effective factors in in the variation of statistic. Among such factors is the increase in hardness of drinking water at Nasrya area ( 1.196 ml mohs / cm ) compared to ( 0.463 ml mohs / cm ) at Kirkuk area . Sulphide and other elements contributes to the hardness of water , however , its abundance in water leads to reduction of the available Iodine for absorption during human biological processes .

First record of digenetic trematodes of frogsRana ridibunda ridibunda collected from Kirkuk, Iraq.

Husain F. Hassan and Shukriya A. Mohamed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43533

In this study which has been done between November 2005 and March 2006, 50 frogs (Rana ridibunda ridibunda ) were collected from Kirkuk governorate (Kirkuk city , Dubis , Taza and Kara injeer ) and examined for digenetic trematodes .Three species of digenetic trematodes Haematoloechus medioplexus , Pleurogenoides medians and Gorgoderina vitelliloba were observed. These species were first recorded in Iraq.