Keywords : using


Using of Climatic Water Balance to Assess The Reality of Groundwater Recharge in Baiji – Tikrit Sub Basin North West of Iraq

Omer S. Ibrahiem; Nawfal H. Ali; Sabbar A. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 79-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44395

The Annual and monthly averages of rainfall and temperature of the tow tikrit and baiji meteorological stations showed that the general annual rainfall is (185) mm. The maximum rainfall is 35.5 mm in January and the minimum is (0.0) mm in august while the general monthly averages of temperature ranging between (8.7 C° in January - 36.5 C° in july ). After calculating the potential evapotranspiration values PE by thornthwait method then derive the values of water surplus WS in order to determined the amount of water that permeates to the groundwater level for each zone in the basin. After the main elements was selected depending by equations that has been developed for each zone as follows : 26 % of rainfall permeates to replenish the groundwater in the basin when the zone A lack o opportunity to allow infiltration of rainfall to the groundwater level for both A and B zones are based on monthly averages of whole surveillance period ( 1989 – 2009 ). The soil moisture amount (SM) is 25 mm for the zone A and 75 mm for each of A and B zones. When we search in the years that exceeds the general annual averages of rainfall ( 185 ) mm , founded that there are (9) years beyond the mentioned averages and account for about (43 %) of surveillance period where the general annual average equal to (242.39) mm and maximum monthly average of the rainfall is ( 41.86) mm in march and lowest average is (0.0) mm in july and august. Depending on these years mentioned, the water surplus for both zones C and B , showed that an increase about ( 29.93) mm from the average of annual rainfall equal to (242.39) mm and (12.34 %) from the rainfall permeates to fed the groundwater in B zone. 7 % adopted as a surface runoff from the rainfall equal to (16.96) mm and the ratio groundwater recharge in C zone is equal to (12.97 ) mm. The variation in groundwater values of recharge along the basin ( A,B and C ) is only a reflection for the type and texture of the deposits on the hand and varying depths, simple differences in topography and evolution of surface water drainage especially in the western part of C zone on the other hand . while the demonstrating convergence of inventories renewed values for the three zones although they have different area and water depths pervasive in all of them but the justification for this approach the increase in area of zones A , B and C, accompanied by decreasing values of deep water permeates for each zone must be noted here that the opportunity to renew stocks of ground water for both B and C amounting to 42 % of the prospect for renewed stocks of water in the zone A as well as the presence of large quantities of leaked water from the liquefaction and sewage water in zone A .

Hydraulic Performance for Al-Dhuloyia Spillway Using Physical Model

Salahddin A. Ahmad; Susan Sh. Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2008.42152

A study was completed to compare flow parameters over a modified ogee-crested spillway which represent an existing project (Al-Dhuloyia Spillway) using a physical model and existing literature. The physical model was constructed by wood with smoothness surface and placed in a test flume. Pressure taps were installed along the entire length of the spillway. Discharge and pressure data were recorded for 10 different flow conditions. Data interpolated from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers design monographs provided discharge and pressure data from the literature. Non dimensional discharge curves are used to compare the results for both physical model and those of literature. Pressures are compared at low, mid, and high flow conditions. Also water surface profile for Al-Dhuloyia Spillway was compared with those of literature and for different discharge condition. It is shown that there is reasonably good agreement between the physical and that those for literature for pressures, discharges and water surface profile.

Using selection index technique for improvement of yield and its components in durum wheat

Ghaadh. T. Abdulla

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 52-66
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43399

Eight varieties of durum wheat (Leeds, Waha, Um Rabie5, Azegar1, Um Rabie3, Brashua, Cyprus1 and Korfila) and their half diallel crosses were used in this study to construct several selection indices and calculate the gains expected in the yield. It was revealed that the selection index constructed from plant yield, number of spikes plant, number of tillers and harvest index had the highest increase in the efficiency (5.75%) as compared with direct selection for yield. This indicate that a selection index based on combination of characters, including yield, would have an advantage of practical significance over selection based on yield only. This index considered the superior due to it’s high efficiency and constructed of lowest number of characters. By the estimation of the eight varieties selection index values, it was found that Um Rabie5 had the best value, then Um Rabie3 and Azegar1 consequently.

Study the ability of using of solar energy for domestic heating in Kirkuk city

O.K. Ahmad; H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2007.43507

In this study , a solar collector has been costructed by using prous media (emery) as absorbeing and storing surface. The solar collector is inclined of ( ) of the horizon. Heat is absorbed from the solar collector by forced convection of air. The solar collector was applied on building with dimensions (10 x 7 x 2.5 m ).The solar collector has been studied in the active system. This has shown that it is of a medium performance that it gives the highest rate of solar heat fraction ( SHF) about (0.52), which is a less value than what is neede, so the solar collector needs a high auxiliary heater to keep the hall temperature at (18 oC).

A Study of the Active Using of the Solar Energy by Using a Porous Media of Kirkuk city

Saad.M. Al-Mashat; Ahmed.H. Ahmed; Omar.K. Ahmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2006, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2006.44050

In this study, a solar collector that uses porous media has been designed and constructed as an absorbing and storing heat surface. The solar collector is inclined of ( ) with the horizon. Heat has been absorbed from the collector by forced convection of air. A theoretical and experimental study was made for testing the performance of the collector in continuous operating of an air blower( from a.m to p.m) The highest instantaneous efficiency of the collector was about ( ), while the highest different between air input temperature and air output temperature from solar collector was about( ).