About Journal

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies KUJSS is a scientific, open access, and refereed journal published since 2006 by the College of Science, Kirkuk University,  Kirkuk, Iraq. It publishes experimental and theoretical papers in the field of pure and applied science, in English. The manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published elsewhere. We are using iThenticate software to check the originality of the submitted works for potential plagiarism. Manuscripts are subjected...
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Effect of Exposure to Cement Dust of Residents in Vicinity of Kirkuk Cement Factory on Kidney Parameters

Sanaa Mohammed Morshed; Abed Ahmed Aredni; Layla Abd AL-Sattar Sadiq

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.135869.1071

The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of Kirkuk cement factory dust on renal function tests among the residents of villages and farms surrounding the factory and those who are constantly exposed to cement dust, which include: urea, uric acid, creatinine and total serum protein for the period from January 2021 to April 2021. The samples were randomly collected (60) samples from different distances as the study group, which were divided according to the distance from the factory into six categories D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, while the control group was (30) samples for the last category, Laylan D7 area, and their average age ranged from (10-70) years, venous blood was drawn (5) ml of blood, serum was separated by common methods of separation, and renal function tests were performed on it.
The results showed that the studied groups recorded a significant increase in the concentration of urea, uric acid, creatinine and total serum protein in the blood serum at the level of P≤0.01 compared to the control group.

Studying the Relationship between the Maximum Electron Density with the Critical Frequency in the Ionospheric E-Layer over Kirkuk City During the Solar Cycle 24

Jawdet H. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 8-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.135136.1069

This research aims to study the relationship between the values of electron density (NmE) and the critical frequency (fo E) of ionospheric E layer over Kirkuk city (lon: 44° E, lat: 35° N) which was obtained through the use of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2016) publication on the website (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/modelweb/models/iri2016_vitmo.php) during the years (2008, 2014, 2018), which represents each (ascending phase, peak, desending phase) for the solar cycle 24, and in dates (22December, 20March, 20June and 22Semtember) which represent the days of (Winter solstice, Spring equinox, Summer solstice, Autumn equinox) respectively.
In this research, the nature of the relationship between the values of electron density (NmE) and the critical frequency of ionospheric E (fo E) layer were explained by description of hourly changes and calculating the correlation coefficient between the two variables by using Microsoft Excel (2010).
The results indicated that there is a strong linear correlation between both variables where the values of correlation coefficients ranged between (0.984) – (0.998), and this indicates that with the increase in electron density the critical frequency increase, and vice versa.

Evaluation of the Efficiency of some Methods in Biological Control of Phlebotomus Papatasi (Diptera:Psychoididae).

Rabah Hassan Saady

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.136011.1075

The research  studies the biological efficiency of the fungus Verticillium lacanii and the alcoholic extract leaves  Nerium sp Capparis sp and Lawsonia sp against  fourth larval instar and adults of male and female  Phlebotomus papatasi. The study was conducted at the  laboratory condition at a temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity. 65 ± 5% and a period of illumination of 12 hours / day . The suspension of Verticillium lacanii at a concentration of 1×810 spores / ml gave the highest mortality 86.74% for the fourth larval instar after 24 hours of treatment, while the suspension of Verticillium lacanii at concentration of 1×810 spores / ml gave the highest mortality  of 78.16% for the male  Phlebotomus papatasi after after 24 hours of treatment, the suspension of Verticillium lacanii at a concentration of 1 x 810 spores/ml gave the highest mortality rate of 46.75 % for female  after 24 treatment. Alcoholic extract of Capparis gave  highest mortality 89.57.% for the fourth larval instar, 76.18% for males, and 87.71% for the female  Phlebotomus papatasi after 24 hours at concentration 0.07 mg/l . The alcoholic extract of Lawsonia sp showed the lowest mortality was 43.01 % for the fourth larval instar, 29.21% for males, 31.86% for female sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi after 24 hours of treatment at concentration 0.01 mg/l respectively.    

Biodegradation of Food Waste by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Microorganisms in Duhok city

Adel Omar Ahmad; Hussein Ali Sadeq; Yousif Abdullah Albany; Mohammad Ismail Al-Berfkani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.136291.1079

Garbage kitchen waste has been considered as one of the most difficult global issues with negative effect on the environment and health. It contains high amounts of cellulose and other organic waste which become ideal environments for the growth of pathogenic microbes and their toxic products which may reach agricultural land and water system. As a compromise, certain microbes are implemented under certain conditions to reduce and manage food waste. In the present study microorganism isolated from garbage kitchen waste collected in Duhok city. one thermophilic bacterium, two mesophilic bacteria, and fungus. All isolates were identified to the genus level and verified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. The findings show that two mesophilic bacteria were fungus from the genera Mucor and Rhizopus, one was a bacterium from the family Staphylococci, and one was a thermophilic Bacillus species. The enzyme activities of the isolates were estimated and revealed that Bacillus spp. has cellulase, protease and catalase activity while Staphylococcus spp. has only protease and catalase activity. Mucor and Rhizopus spp. have only cellulase and catalase activity. To estimate the level of garbage degradation. The level of garbage degradation was estimated by tacking the weight of the sample before and after degradation as well as detecting the content of protein and carbohydrate by using Folin Lowry and di-nitro salicyclic acid, phenol sulphuric acid method. The comparative study showed that both mesophilic (Mucor) and thermophilic microorganisms (Bacillus) showed the best degrader compared with Staphylococcus and Rhizopus.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Methyldopa in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations by the Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 1, 5-Diaminonaphthalene in the Presence of Ammonium Ceric (IV) Nitrate

Noor Mansoor Ghaib Allah; Abdul Majeed Khorsheed Ahmed; Nashwan O. Tapabashi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 42-49
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.133098.1060

Oxidative coupling reactions are one of the significant methods used in the estimation of certain drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. This study describes the development of a fast and sensitive spectroscopic method considering the determination of trace amounts of methyldopa in an acidic aqueous solution.The adopted method centered on oxidative coupling due to the drug Methyldopa with the reagent 1, 5-diaminonaphthalene in the presence of ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate as oxidizing agent to form a stable blue-colored product, giving the highest absorption at 730 nm. The product was appeared to agree Beer's law within the limits of (5.4 - 39.6) μg /ml, and a value of molar absorptivity equal to 4.79471 ×104 L/ mol. cm. Sandell’s index, 0.0044 μg/ cm2, Relative standard deviation was in the range (0.5942 - 0.9687) %, whereas recovery average and determination factor were 99.908% and 0.9998. The proposed method has been successfully applied in the determination of Methyldopa in its pharmaceutical preparations.

Isolation and Diagnosis Intestinal Helminthes from Stray Dogs in Kirkuk

Husain F. Hassan; Sabreen Y. Gaieb

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.130604.1035

In the present study 30 stray dogs were collected, dissected and diagnosed in order to recognition on intestinal parasitic helminthes.
The results demonstrated that 50% of total 30 stray dogs were found to be infected with intestinal parasitic helminthes. These includes three species of trematodes Heterophyes (6.6%), Mesostephanus (6.6%) and Prohemistomum (6.6%), three species of cestodes Dipylidium caninum (40%), Echinococcus granulosus (6.6%) and Taenia taeniaformis (13.3%), and three species of nematodes, Ancylostoma (20%), Dirofilaria immitis (6.6%) and Toxocara canis (6.6%).
Three species of trematodes (Heterophyes, Mesostephanus and Prohenistomum) and one adult nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis) were isolated for the first time from stray dogs in Iraq.

A Study of the Effects of Gaussian Noise on Image Features

Ameen Mohammed Abd-Alsalam Selami; Ahmed Freidoon Fadhil

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2016, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 152-169
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2016.124648

في هذا البحث، تم اجراء اختبار تأثير الضوضاء على ميزات الصور الرقمية حيث أن معظم أنظمة الحاسبات والاتصالات معرضة للتأثر بـالضوضاء المعروفة بالـ (Gaussian Noise) التي قد تأتي من مصادر طبيعية مختلفة فكان من المثير للاهتمام أن يتم قياس تأثير هذه الضوضاء على ميزات الصور. لهذا الغرض، تم استخدام مجموعة من الصور المعرضة لـ (Gaussian Noise) لتوليد الصور المشوهة مع قيم مختلفة للمتوسط والتباين في كل مرة مع نفس مجموعة الصور وذلك لاجل قياس حالات متنوعة من تاثير هذه الضوضاء. ثم، استخدمت أربع مرشحات تعزيز مختلفة لإزالة الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) واختيرت مجموعة من 10 ميزات لهذه الدراسة. ان الميزات من الصور الأصلية ، الصور المشوهة، والصور المعززة قد احتسبت وتمت المقارنة بينها. أظهرت النتائج ان بعض مرشحات التعزيز اثرت على ميزات الصور اكثر من الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) نفسها, اضافة إلى أن بعض مرشحات التعزيز لها التاثير نفسه على ميزات الـ (Texture) و الـ (Entropy) واثنان من الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet). استنادا إلى ميزات الـ (Texture), مرشح التعزيز المتوسط اعطت افضل النتائج, بينما استنادا إلى الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet) فان مرشح تعزيز الحركة اعطت افضل النتائج. البرنامج الذي تم استخدامه في هذا البحث هو Matlab 2013 .

Synthesis and characterization of some new2- mercapto benzimidazole derivative from ortho phenylenediamine

Ihmood kh .jebur; Noaman F.N. Al-hitti

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 222-239
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.124183

of hydrazones (N3- N10) were synthesized from the reaction of compound (N2) with various substituted benzaldehydes (aceto phenone) gave hydrazone compounds(N3-N10).Substituted compounds(N11-N12) , compound (N13) , compounds(N14-N16) ,compounds (N17-N18),Were synthesized from cyclization of hydrazones (N3- N10) using chloro acetic acid or tri chloro acetic acid or thio glycolic acid or chloro acetyl chloride respectively.
The synthesized compounds were identified according to their physical properties, spectroscopic data (IR and1H- NMR) in addition to systematic identification of some active functional groups in these compounds. This the research includes synthesis of some new derivatives of 2-mercapto benzimidazole (N1), the compound (N1), prepared by reaction of o-phenylene diamine with carbon disulfide in alcoholic potassium hydroxide. Then the compound (N1) was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give 2-hydrazinobenzimidazole ( N2).A Number

Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Promethazine- HCl in Pharmaceutical Formulation Based on Oxidative Coupling with the Reagent m-Amino Benzoic Acid in Presence of N-Bromosuccinimide.

Mohammad Salim Abdulaziz; Aseen N. Shareef; Mohsin Hamza Bakir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 236-256
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.14

An easy, rapid and sensitive novel spectrophotometric method for estimation of trace amounts of Promethazine-HCl in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on using the oxidative coupling reaction of Promethazine-HCl with m-amino benzoic acid reagent at pH1.2 in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide to produce an intense green color, water soluble, product which exhibit maximum absorbance at 592 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over concentration range of (2-26 µg/ml), with a Ԑ 9.754×〖10〗^3 l/mol.cm, Coefficient determination (R2=0.9991). Sandell̕s index of 0.03289 µg/cm^2, the average recovery is 100.396 %, RSD does not exceed 0.3096 %, LOD of 0.1949 µg/m1 and LOQ of 0.5905 µg/m1. The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of PMZH in its pharmaceutical formulations..

Automatic Enrollment System for Student Dormitory

Kamal Hasan Jihad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 68-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145716

The Directorate of Dormitories at the University of Kirkuk offers full accommodated rooms to the male and female students. However, the directorate registers and assigns the accommodations manually. Therefore, a visiting has been made to the directorate to identify the problems of this system. It is found that the manual system suffers from several issues such as wasting time, losing data and extra charges in documenting students' information. Additionally, delays in replying to students’ enquiries, and ignoring their discipline in distributing them among the accommodations. This paper proposes using an e-governance system to tackle the identified problems. The proposed system permits the student to register online and provides him/her with an id card. The id card consists of a serial number, ISBN and student's room information in the accommodation. To design the system, a number of programming languages is used: (PHP, HTML, JAVA SCRIPT and CSS). Furthermore, SPSS software has implemented to evaluate the system. The evaluation has shown significant merits in terms of the reliability and speeding up of assigning rooms to the students among the accommodations. The distribution of the students is according to students discipline. Furthermore, the system determines the capacity of each accommodation precisely. Moreover, decreasing in time wasting and tiredness that may students face in the traditional manual system. Additionally, reducing the physical contact between the students and the employees. Consequently, the proposed system gathers students' information in an electronic archiving which may lead to easiness in importing their information in the future.

Oocyte development in liza abu

Gazwa. D. Al-Nakeeb; Mukhtar. Kh. Haba

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 53-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41425

Khishni fish Liza abu were collected from Tigris river to study oocyte development in this fish .Present study showed that the oogenesis process include seven stages divided according to cell size,chromatin matter and vitellogenesis .The first stage represent as Oogonia,the second is Early oocyte,the third is Multinucleated stage,then Yolk nucleus stage (indicator to beginning of vitillogenesis),followed by primary and secondary stages and lastly Maturation stage

Construction of New Coated Carbon Electrodes for Determination of Sildenafil Citrate Drug

Aveen K. Mohammed; Ali I. Khaleel; Nawzad N. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.2.1

In this research, new coated carbon electrodes were constructed and used for the determination of Sildenafil citrate (SILC) drug. The electrodes were constructed by preparing ion-pair for (SILC) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or phosphomolybdic (PMA) acid using   dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a plasticizer. These electrodes showed good sensitivity towards SILC with linear range of (1.0´10-7-1.0´10-2) M, correlation coefficient, (0.9990), the life time (120) days, optimum temperature range (23-65) oC and optimum pH range (2-5) for both electrodes, limit of detection (5.055´10-8 and 5.116´10-8) M, slope (57.29 and 59.10) mV/decadefor SILC-PTA and SILC-PMA electrodes respectively. These electrodes were successfully applied for determination of SILC in pure and pharmaceutical preparation form(tablets) with recovery of not less than 98%.

The Effect of Different Curing Method and Water /Cement Ratios on Concrete Compressive Strength

Khalid Abdul Aziz Zakaria; Ashtar Saleh AL-Luhybi; Rana Burhan Alshahwany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 83-97
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.6

At this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to explore the effect of different curing methods and water cement ratios on compressive strength and density of normal weight concrete. The samples had been submitted to five different curing methods including: water curing (standard curing), air curing and three types of colored plastic bags curing including (Transparent, white and black bags). The effect of w/c ratio on compressive strength at different curing had been studied too. Test results shows that the curing by plastic bags gives accepted results compared with standard curing and better than air curing. For all kinds of referenced curing the increasing in w/c ratios decrease the compressive strength, and the density of concrete samples reduces at air and plastic bags curing compared with standard curing..

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Schiff Bases Derived from Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Evaluating The Biological Activity of Some of these Derivatives

Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi; Moneer Khadhim Muhsin; Marwan Ahmed Jassim Ahmed Jassim Shahir Al-Salami

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 56-86
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.167518

This study included the synthesis of O-carboxymethyl chitosan which contains amine group attached directly to its glucose unit from the well-known natural polymer (chitosan), which in turn was reacted with some aromatic aldehydes containing o- and p- substituents to prepare a series of Schiff bases compounds. The used aldehydes were; p-boromobenzaldehyde, o-hydroxybenzaldehyde, o-bromobenzaldehyde, p-chlorobenzaldehyde, and p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques including FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The thermal stability of some of the prepared compounds was checked using differential thermaogravimetric analysis DTA. Finally, the biological activity of two Schiff bases was measured against two types of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and (Staphylococcus aureus) in terms of inhibition rate.

Effect of Spraying Urea in Yield and Components Properties in Upland Cotton Gossypium Hirsutum

Naif S. Saleh; Arshad Th. AL-Niaumi; Fathel R. AL-Kana

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.42538

An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replicates to study the effect of spraying nitrogen fertilizer as a urea with concentration 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 mg/liter on the characters of cotton Koker 310 at summer season 2007 in experiment station of cotton research unit in mosul technical institute , all the agricultural practices were done for the end of season where study the plant height , number of nodes to the first fruit branch , number of vegetative branches , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls /plant , boll weight , seed index , lint index , lint percentage and seed cotton yield kg/h . Spraying urea fertilizer in concentration 20 mg/liter significantly exceeded from control in plant height , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls/plant , boll weight and seed cotton yield kg/h in percent 63.72 , 24.49 , 43.92 , 8.92 , 42.59% respectively while seed index significantly differed from control treatment in other used concentrations . Spraying urea fertilizer reflected significantly linear regression correlation to increase seed index and degrease lint percentage in addition to positive significant correlation for seed cotton yield with plant height , number of vegetative branches , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls /plant , boll weight and seed index .

A Study of the Operational Conditions Influence on the Performance of Kirkuk Gas Plant

Abid Zedan Khalaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 72-90
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.103479

Kirkuk gas turbine power plant is supplied by the gaseous fuel from north gas company. The results showed that the theoretical efficiency of the unit is a function for two parameters; the compressor input temperature and the pressure ratio rp . So, the pressure rp ratio depends directly on the compressor input temperature. If the net work of the unit Wnet (Wt - Wc) is taken to be an index for the performance, the efficiency ƞ will be more in summer than that in winter because of the considerable reduction in compressor work Wc , while if the specific energy produced (or consumed specific fuel SFC) is taken as an index for the performance; the actual efficiency ƞac is more in winter since the specific energy produced in winter is greater approaching (4.5 kW.hr.m-3), while it did not exceed (2.8 kW.hr.m-3) in summer, this belong to the performance improving as the load increases approaching the design load, this is prevailing on the power plant operated by the diesel, heavy fuel or crude oil.

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