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Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies KUJSS is a scientific, open access, and refereed journal published since 2006 by the College of Science, Kirkuk University,  Kirkuk, Iraq. It publishes experimental and theoretical papers in the field of pure science and engineering, in English or Arabic. The manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published elsewhere. We are using iThenticate software to check the originality of the submitted works for potential plagiarism. Manuscripts...
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Evaluation of Genetic Variability between Local White Chicken and Commercial Lines by RAPD-PCR and Sequencing of 18s rRNA Gene

Hemin Hussein Ali; Dilger Maghded Khdr; Aram M. Ahmed; Shirkoo Ameen Fateh Salai; Rozhgar A. Khailany

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.174517

The present study investigated and identified genetic diversity between native White chicken lines and two commercial Broiler (Rose) and Layer (Isa Brown) chicken breeds using RAPD markers and a sequencing technique. All primers applied produced 151 scorable bands with percentage polymorphic loci of 54.93 % within chicken populations, as per the results of the RAPD marker. The maximum amplified fragment by primer OPC-11 was 22 and the fewest by primer OPAA-03 was 7. For all loci analyzed, the effective number of alleles (ne), means the observed number of alleles (na), Shannon's information index (I), and gene diversity (h) was 1.4394, 1.5493, 0.3496, and 0.2441, respectively. The presence of a high number of polymorphisms and targeted (71) loci across all chicken populations indicates that RAPD-PCR techniques provide sufficient genetic distance and higher genetic variation among chicken populations. The highest identity of the blasted sequences of the 18srRNA gene of local white chicken is 90.41 % and 84.23 %. Likewise, a total of 46 and 27 nucleotides are altered with 27 and 10 gaps in both sequences for the first and second regions, respectively. According to both phylogenetic trees, the local white chicken had a stronger sense of individuality and was slightly closer to the commercial broiler breeds than the layer chicken breeds. As a result, it suggests that enhancing the local chicken line requires a broiler breeding program, as well as cross-breeding with other native chicken lines to obtain hereditarily significant new strains.


A review of the uses of the ketogenic diet

Qays Assi ahmed; Khalida Khalil Abdullah; Wurood Mohamed Mutar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.132824.1058

To reduce the health complications of obesity, safe therapies and effective weight loss processes must be identified with preventing weight regain at the same time.Humans have metabolic flexibility and the potential to utilise ketones as an energy source by reducing carbohydrate intake in the diet, this reduces insulin levels, and ketogenesis occurs . These conditions promote the release of excess stored fat, avoid muscle weakness, and improve insulin sensitivity. Losing weight by diet causes appetite feeling and a rise in ghrelin release , that raises the likelihood of regaining weight and is thus counterproductive to goals for weight reduction . A study's aim is to review evidence on a ketogenic diet for weight loss and metabolic illnesses like insulin resistance, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease development, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. We present a foundational understanding of dietary ketones and how they are formed.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Marwan Ahmed Jassim Al-Salami; Moneer Khadhim Muhsin; Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 20-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.132503.1055

This research concerns the synthesis of two carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCs) complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II). The synthesized complexes were characterized using (FT-IR) showing absorption peaks in the region (566 cm-1) which belongs to the bonds of Cu(II) with carboxymethyl chitosan [Cu(CMCs)2] and (580 cm-1) which belongs to the bonds of Ni(II) with carboxymethyl chitosan [Ni(CMCs)2]. Molar conductivity was determined for both complexes [Cu(CMCs)2] and [Ni(CMCs)2] and the results showed that these complexes non-electrolytes . UV-visible has been also recorded for [Cu(CMCs)2] complex solution (0.50 x 10-3M) is absorbed at (295 nm). It is proposed that [Cu(CMCs)2] possess a square planar structure. Whereas [Ni(CMCS)2] is absorbed at (290 nm) supposing that the structure of this complexes is tetrahedral. The absorbance of both complexes can be attributed to the (π→π*).

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation Antibacterial Activity of Some (1,3-Oxazepine-4,7-dione and 1,3-Benzooxazepine-4,7-dione) Derived from Sulphamethoxazole using Irradiation Method.

Fouad Ahmed Omar; Ayad Sulaiman Hamad; Nihad Ismael Taha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 27-35
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2022.131552.1048

In this study, new compounds of Schiff bases were prepared (1-6), from the reaction of sulfamethoxazole with benzaldehyde derivatives. Schiff bases (1-6) converted to 1,3-Oxazepine-4,7-dione and 1,3-Benzooxazepine-4,7-dione derivatives (7-18) through the reaction of Schiff bases with maleic anhydride as well as phthalic anhydride using crushing, grinding and microwave irradiation method. The structures of all prepared compounds have been identified by (I.R) technique, also some of the prepared compounds have been identified by (1H-NMR,13C-NMR) techniques. The biological activities have been carried out for some compounds such as (9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17) against two types of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coil.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Intestinal Helminthes from Stray Cats in Kirkuk City

sabreen Y. Gaieb; Husain F. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2022, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 36-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.130586.1034

In the present study 25 stray cats were collected and dissected in order to identify and diagnose the intestinal parasitic helminthes. The results of the study demonstrated the infection of all stray cats with one or more parasitic helmithes. The identified helminthes belonged to: three species of trematodes which were Echinochasmus sp. (4%), Heterophyes sp. (4%) and Prohemistomum  sp. (4%), four species of cestodes which were Diplopylidium sp. (24%), Dipylidium caninum 48%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei sp. (16%) and Taenia taeniaformis (12%), and  three species of nematodes which were  Physaloptera preputalis (4%), Toxocara cati (8%) and Toxoascaris leonina (8%). Three species of trematodes (Echinochasmus, Heterophyes, Prohemistomum) were isolated for the first time from stray cats in Iraq.

A Study of the Effects of Gaussian Noise on Image Features

Ameen Mohammed Abd-Alsalam Selami; Ahmed Freidoon Fadhil

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2016, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 152-169
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2016.124648

في هذا البحث، تم اجراء اختبار تأثير الضوضاء على ميزات الصور الرقمية حيث أن معظم أنظمة الحاسبات والاتصالات معرضة للتأثر بـالضوضاء المعروفة بالـ (Gaussian Noise) التي قد تأتي من مصادر طبيعية مختلفة فكان من المثير للاهتمام أن يتم قياس تأثير هذه الضوضاء على ميزات الصور. لهذا الغرض، تم استخدام مجموعة من الصور المعرضة لـ (Gaussian Noise) لتوليد الصور المشوهة مع قيم مختلفة للمتوسط والتباين في كل مرة مع نفس مجموعة الصور وذلك لاجل قياس حالات متنوعة من تاثير هذه الضوضاء. ثم، استخدمت أربع مرشحات تعزيز مختلفة لإزالة الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) واختيرت مجموعة من 10 ميزات لهذه الدراسة. ان الميزات من الصور الأصلية ، الصور المشوهة، والصور المعززة قد احتسبت وتمت المقارنة بينها. أظهرت النتائج ان بعض مرشحات التعزيز اثرت على ميزات الصور اكثر من الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) نفسها, اضافة إلى أن بعض مرشحات التعزيز لها التاثير نفسه على ميزات الـ (Texture) و الـ (Entropy) واثنان من الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet). استنادا إلى ميزات الـ (Texture), مرشح التعزيز المتوسط اعطت افضل النتائج, بينما استنادا إلى الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet) فان مرشح تعزيز الحركة اعطت افضل النتائج. البرنامج الذي تم استخدامه في هذا البحث هو Matlab 2013 .

Synthesis and characterization of some new2- mercapto benzimidazole derivative from ortho phenylenediamine

Ihmood kh .jebur; Noaman F.N. Al-hitti

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 222-239
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.124183

of hydrazones (N3- N10) were synthesized from the reaction of compound (N2) with various substituted benzaldehydes (aceto phenone) gave hydrazone compounds(N3-N10).Substituted compounds(N11-N12) , compound (N13) , compounds(N14-N16) ,compounds (N17-N18),Were synthesized from cyclization of hydrazones (N3- N10) using chloro acetic acid or tri chloro acetic acid or thio glycolic acid or chloro acetyl chloride respectively.
The synthesized compounds were identified according to their physical properties, spectroscopic data (IR and1H- NMR) in addition to systematic identification of some active functional groups in these compounds. This the research includes synthesis of some new derivatives of 2-mercapto benzimidazole (N1), the compound (N1), prepared by reaction of o-phenylene diamine with carbon disulfide in alcoholic potassium hydroxide. Then the compound (N1) was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give 2-hydrazinobenzimidazole ( N2).A Number

Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Promethazine- HCl in Pharmaceutical Formulation Based on Oxidative Coupling with the Reagent m-Amino Benzoic Acid in Presence of N-Bromosuccinimide.

Mohammad Salim Abdulaziz; Aseen N. Shareef; Mohsin Hamza Bakir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 236-256
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.4.14

An easy, rapid and sensitive novel spectrophotometric method for estimation of trace amounts of Promethazine-HCl in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on using the oxidative coupling reaction of Promethazine-HCl with m-amino benzoic acid reagent at pH1.2 in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide to produce an intense green color, water soluble, product which exhibit maximum absorbance at 592 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over concentration range of (2-26 µg/ml), with a Ԑ 9.754×〖10〗^3 l/mol.cm, Coefficient determination (R2=0.9991). Sandell̕s index of 0.03289 µg/cm^2, the average recovery is 100.396 %, RSD does not exceed 0.3096 %, LOD of 0.1949 µg/m1 and LOQ of 0.5905 µg/m1. The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of PMZH in its pharmaceutical formulations..

Oocyte development in liza abu

Gazwa. D. Al-Nakeeb; Mukhtar. Kh. Haba

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 53-41
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2010.41425

Khishni fish Liza abu were collected from Tigris river to study oocyte development in this fish .Present study showed that the oogenesis process include seven stages divided according to cell size,chromatin matter and vitellogenesis .The first stage represent as Oogonia,the second is Early oocyte,the third is Multinucleated stage,then Yolk nucleus stage (indicator to beginning of vitillogenesis),followed by primary and secondary stages and lastly Maturation stage

Design of the illumination system in the field emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein; Faez Ahmed Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 287-296
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2017.132396

The main goal of This Work is to survey the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain on the optimal design for illumination system. The SEM optical column contains of illumination system that form a focused beam by electrons are released and animated to incident on the specimen surface, this backscattered electrons from the specimen surfaces, finally forming an image. mainly the optical column include a field emission source as the beam source, illumination system, electron control unit, and unit the vacuum. use of a finite element analyses in the design process of the SEM ingredient to be optimally determined. By the analysis we can predict the beam emission characteristics and relevant trajectories were predicted from the analysis of the present work from which a systematic design of the electron optical system is enabled.

Construction of New Coated Carbon Electrodes for Determination of Sildenafil Citrate Drug

Aveen K. Mohammed; Ali I. Khaleel; Nawzad N. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.2.1

In this research, new coated carbon electrodes were constructed and used for the determination of Sildenafil citrate (SILC) drug. The electrodes were constructed by preparing ion-pair for (SILC) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or phosphomolybdic (PMA) acid using   dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a plasticizer. These electrodes showed good sensitivity towards SILC with linear range of (1.0´10-7-1.0´10-2) M, correlation coefficient, (0.9990), the life time (120) days, optimum temperature range (23-65) oC and optimum pH range (2-5) for both electrodes, limit of detection (5.055´10-8 and 5.116´10-8) M, slope (57.29 and 59.10) mV/decadefor SILC-PTA and SILC-PMA electrodes respectively. These electrodes were successfully applied for determination of SILC in pure and pharmaceutical preparation form(tablets) with recovery of not less than 98%.

Effect of Spraying Urea in Yield and Components Properties in Upland Cotton Gossypium Hirsutum

Naif S. Saleh; Arshad Th. AL-Niaumi; Fathel R. AL-Kana

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2011.42538

An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replicates to study the effect of spraying nitrogen fertilizer as a urea with concentration 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 mg/liter on the characters of cotton Koker 310 at summer season 2007 in experiment station of cotton research unit in mosul technical institute , all the agricultural practices were done for the end of season where study the plant height , number of nodes to the first fruit branch , number of vegetative branches , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls /plant , boll weight , seed index , lint index , lint percentage and seed cotton yield kg/h . Spraying urea fertilizer in concentration 20 mg/liter significantly exceeded from control in plant height , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls/plant , boll weight and seed cotton yield kg/h in percent 63.72 , 24.49 , 43.92 , 8.92 , 42.59% respectively while seed index significantly differed from control treatment in other used concentrations . Spraying urea fertilizer reflected significantly linear regression correlation to increase seed index and degrease lint percentage in addition to positive significant correlation for seed cotton yield with plant height , number of vegetative branches , number of fruiting branches , number of bolls /plant , boll weight and seed index .

A Study of the Operational Conditions Influence on the Performance of Kirkuk Gas Plant

Abid Zedan Khalaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2015, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 72-90
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2015.103479

Kirkuk gas turbine power plant is supplied by the gaseous fuel from north gas company. The results showed that the theoretical efficiency of the unit is a function for two parameters; the compressor input temperature and the pressure ratio rp . So, the pressure rp ratio depends directly on the compressor input temperature. If the net work of the unit Wnet (Wt - Wc) is taken to be an index for the performance, the efficiency ƞ will be more in summer than that in winter because of the considerable reduction in compressor work Wc , while if the specific energy produced (or consumed specific fuel SFC) is taken as an index for the performance; the actual efficiency ƞac is more in winter since the specific energy produced in winter is greater approaching (4.5 kW.hr.m-3), while it did not exceed (2.8 kW.hr.m-3) in summer, this belong to the performance improving as the load increases approaching the design load, this is prevailing on the power plant operated by the diesel, heavy fuel or crude oil.

Using of Climatic Water Balance to Assess The Reality of Groundwater Recharge in Baiji – Tikrit Sub Basin North West of Iraq

Omer S. Ibrahiem; Nawfal H. Ali; Sabbar A. Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 79-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2012.44395

The Annual and monthly averages of rainfall and temperature of the tow tikrit and baiji meteorological stations showed that the general annual rainfall is (185) mm. The maximum rainfall is 35.5 mm in January and the minimum is (0.0) mm in august while the general monthly averages of temperature ranging between (8.7 C° in January - 36.5 C° in july ). After calculating the potential evapotranspiration values PE by thornthwait method then derive the values of water surplus WS in order to determined the amount of water that permeates to the groundwater level for each zone in the basin. After the main elements was selected depending by equations that has been developed for each zone as follows : 26 % of rainfall permeates to replenish the groundwater in the basin when the zone A lack o opportunity to allow infiltration of rainfall to the groundwater level for both A and B zones are based on monthly averages of whole surveillance period ( 1989 – 2009 ). The soil moisture amount (SM) is 25 mm for the zone A and 75 mm for each of A and B zones. When we search in the years that exceeds the general annual averages of rainfall ( 185 ) mm , founded that there are (9) years beyond the mentioned averages and account for about (43 %) of surveillance period where the general annual average equal to (242.39) mm and maximum monthly average of the rainfall is ( 41.86) mm in march and lowest average is (0.0) mm in july and august. Depending on these years mentioned, the water surplus for both zones C and B , showed that an increase about ( 29.93) mm from the average of annual rainfall equal to (242.39) mm and (12.34 %) from the rainfall permeates to fed the groundwater in B zone. 7 % adopted as a surface runoff from the rainfall equal to (16.96) mm and the ratio groundwater recharge in C zone is equal to (12.97 ) mm. The variation in groundwater values of recharge along the basin ( A,B and C ) is only a reflection for the type and texture of the deposits on the hand and varying depths, simple differences in topography and evolution of surface water drainage especially in the western part of C zone on the other hand . while the demonstrating convergence of inventories renewed values for the three zones although they have different area and water depths pervasive in all of them but the justification for this approach the increase in area of zones A , B and C, accompanied by decreasing values of deep water permeates for each zone must be noted here that the opportunity to renew stocks of ground water for both B and C amounting to 42 % of the prospect for renewed stocks of water in the zone A as well as the presence of large quantities of leaked water from the liquefaction and sewage water in zone A .

Synthesis and Identification of Phenyl Azochalcone & bis- azo – Chalcone Derivatives Derived from P-amino Acetophenone

Zahraa Talib Ghlib; Ahmed Abdul-Hassan; Nihad Ismael Taha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 307-322
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.145896

This work involves the synthesis of different substituted amino-chalcones via claisen- schmidt condensation reaction between p-amino acetophenone and different aromatic substituted benzaldehydes. The second step involves the conversion of amino-chalcones to diazonium salt which were reacted with different phenolic compounds to give azo-chalcone . Some azo-chalcones containing acetyl group wrer prepared by reactingdiazonium salt with para-hydroxyacetophenone, and this gave bis- azo-chalcoe on reaction with substituted aromatic benzaldehyde.
The chemical structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data (FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) and CHN analysis.

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